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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (47):
1

affect

the experience of feeling or emotion

2

arousal

our experiences of the bodily responses created by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)

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emotion

a mental and physiological feeling state that directs our attention and guides our behavior

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motivations

a driving force that initiates and directs behavior

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drives

internal states that are activated when the physiological characteristics of the body our out of balance

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goals

desired end states that we strive to attain

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homeostasis

natural state of the body's systems, with goals, drives, and arousal in balance

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health psychology

interface between affect and physical health: everything that is physiological is also psychological

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basic emotions

anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

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cognitive appraisal

cognitive interpretations that accompany emotions (i.e. fear falling from plane vs excitement falling on roller coaster) allows us to experience secondary emotions

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valence

whether a secondary emotion is positive or negative

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james-lange theory

physical arousal -> emotion

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cannon-bard theory

physical arousal + emotion at same time

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schachter-singer two-factor theory

physical arousal + cognitive label of experience = . experience of the emotion is determined by the intensity of the arousal we are experiencing, but that the cognitive appraisal of the situation determines what the emotion will be

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misattribution of arousal

the tendency for people to incorrectly label the source of the arousal they are experiencing

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excitation transfer

when people who are already experiencing arousal from one event tend to also experience unrelated emotions more strongly

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nonverbal communication

communication that does not involve words

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facial feedback hypothesis

the movement of our facial muscles can trigger corresponding emotions

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stress

the physiological responses that occur when an organism fails to respond appropriately to emotion or physical threats

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post-traumatic stress disorder

a medical syndrome that includes symptoms of anxiety, sleeplessness, nightmares, and social withdrawal

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general adaptation syndrome

the three distinct phases of physiological change that occur in response to long-term stress: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

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HPA axis

a physiological response to stress involving interactions among the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the adrenal glands

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cortisol

a stress hormone that releases sugars into the blood, helping preparing the body to respond to threat

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daily hassles

our everyday interactions with the environment that are essentially negative

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flight-of-fight response

an emotional and behavioral reaction to stress that increases the readiness for action

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tend and befriend response

a behavioral reaction to stress that involves activities designed to create social networks that provide protection from threats

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ocytocin

a hormone that promotes affiliation

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emotional regulation

the ability to successfully control our emotions

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optimism

a general tendency to expect positive outcomes

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self-efficacy

the belief in our ability to carry out actions that produce desired outcomes

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hardiness

quality of people who are positive overall about stressful life events, take more direct action to understand their causes, and attempt to learn from them.

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social support

having positive social relationships with others

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direct effects of social support

having people we can trust and rely on, to share favors with

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appreciation effects of social support

having people around makes us feel good about ourselves

35

eating determinants

biological: hunger controlled by interactions among complex neurological, hormonal systems (maintaining hungry/full homeostasis)

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glucose

the main sugar the body uses for energy

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insulin

hormone secreted by pancreas gland, regulates glucose levels in bloodstream

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other appetite hormones

orexin, ghrelin, leptin

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basal metabolic rate

among of energy expended while at rest

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anorexia nerviosa

an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, distorted body image, and an obsessive fear of gaining weight

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bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging

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obesity

a medical condition in which so much excess body fat has accumulated in the body that it begins to have an adverse impact on health

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sexual response cycle

biological sexual response in humans

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four stages of sexual response cycle

excitement- increased blood flow to genital areas
plateau- increase in breathing, blood pressure, and pulse as orgasm is imminent.
orgasm- muscular contractions throughout the body, mainly in genitals.
resolution- body returns to pre-aroused state. men have refractory period.

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hyperactive sexual desire disorder

3-6% of the population, sex drive so strong it dominates life

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sexual orientation

the direction of our sexual desire toward people of the opposite sex, people of the same sex, or people of both sexes

47

gay fax

gyaness has been around as long as history, 34% gay men, 1-2% gay women, and 1% is bi.