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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (54):
1

consciousness

our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment

2

dualism

mind separate entity from body. espoused by old-timey philosophers but now rejected: brain, part of body, is mind

3

circadian rhythm

daily rhythm that guides waking and sleeping cycle in many animals.

4

season affective disorder

more likely to experience depression in winter due to less bright light. helped by exposure to bright lights

5

suprachiasmatic nucleas

analyzes strength and duration to of light and sends that to brain, acting as the brain's circadian "pacemaker"

6

melatonin

hormone secreted by the pineal gland when low light, makes you drowsy/sleepy

7

rapid eye movement (REM)

a stage of deep sleep characterized by fast moving eyes and dreaming

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non-REM sleep

a deep sleep, characterized by very slow brain waves, that is further subdivided into three stages: N1, N2, N3

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brain waves, going from awake to deeper sleeps

waves get slower as sleepier. beta waves (awake) ->alpha waves(N1) -> theta waves (N1)->delta waves (N3)

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N1 stage of sleep

alpha then theta waves. drowsiness, some lost muscle tone, most awareness gone. twitches and vivid hallucinations

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N2 stage of sleep

further decrease in muscle activity, conscious awareness of environment lost. roughly half of total sleep time. theta waves with bursts of rapid brain activity called sleep spindles

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sleep spindles

bursts of rapid brain activity that intersperse theta waves of N2 sleep

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N3 sleep

slow wave sleep with more very slow delta waves. most sleep abnormalities occur here. some muscle tone still exists, meaning sleepwalking is possible. limited awareness, reacting to things like smoke or baby crying.

14

insomnia

persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep

15

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing that last at least ten seconds

16

narcolepsy

a disorder characterized by extreme daytime sleepiness with frequent episodes of "nodding off"

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sonambulism

sleepwalking, leaving bed and moving around while asleep

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sleep terrors

disruptive sleep disorder, may feature intense panic and loud screams. inability to wake up even though you want to.

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bruxism

teeth grinding during sleep

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restless leg syndrome

itching, burning, or otherwise uncomfortable feeling in legs, worse when sleeping

21

periodic limb movement disorder

sudden involuntary movement of limbs

22

dreams

the succession of images, thoughts, sounds, and emotions that passes through our minds while sleeping

23

wish fulfillment

freudian belief that dreaming allows us to act out desires we repress during the day

24

manifest content vs latent content

literal actions vs hidden psychological meaning of a dream. uncover meaning of dreams with psychoanalysis to get a better handle on dreams. freudian theory.

25

activation-synthesis theory

dreaming is neurons randomly firing off in the brain stem, cortex trying to make sense of it.

26

psychoactive drug

a chemical that changes our states of consciousness, particularly our perceptions and moods. operates in synapses of central nervous system. agonists and antagonists.

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stimulant

block reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and enhanced mood, increased energy. caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines

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depressant

increases production of GABA and decrease ACh. calming, sleep, pain relief. alcohol and barbituates

29

opiods

chemically similar to endorphins, body's natural pain reducers. slowing of many functions, conspitation, respiratory and cardiac depression.

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hallucinogens

similar to seratonin and epinephrine, mimic them. altered consciousness, hallucinations. weed, LSD, mescaline, PCP, peyote

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tolerance

increase in dose required to produce the same effect

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dependence

need to use a drug or other substance regularly

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withdrawal

negative experiences that accompany reducing or stopping drug use, including physical pain and other symptoms. When the user powerfully craves the drug and is driven to seek it out, over and over again, no matter what the physical, social and financial, and legal cost

34

safety ratio

fatal dose/effective dose. heroin=6, marijuana = 1000

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stimulant

a psychoactive drug that operates by blocking reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the synapses of the CNS

36

caffeine

bitter psychoactive drug found in the beans, leaves and fruits of plants.

37

nicotine

psychoactive drug found in nightshade family of plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide

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cocaine

an addictive drug obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. blood vessels, dilates pupils, increases body temp and heart rate.

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amphetamine

a stimulant that pro dues increased wakefulness and focus, along with decreased fatigue and appetite, prescriptions control ADHD

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methamphetamine

methylated amphetamines. highly dangerous

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MDMA

ecstasy, very strong stimulant. huge ups and downs

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depressant

a psychoactive drug that reduces the activity of the CNS. increased GABA, decreased ACh.

43

alcohol

colorless liquid, produced by fermentation of sugar or starch, that is the intoxicating agent in fermented drinks

44

barbituates

depressants that are commonly prescribed as sleeping pills and painkillers. low doses=sleepiness, relaxation. high doses=sluggishness, difficulty thinking, slowness of speech, drowsiness, faulty judgement, and eventually coma or death

45

benzodiazepines

a family of despressants used to treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. mild sedation and anxiety relief in low doses,

46

toxic inhalants

vapors inhaled.

47

opiods

chemicals that produce activity in opiod receptor neurons in the brain and in the digestive system, producing euphoria, analgesia, slower breathing, and constipation`

48

opium

dried use of the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy.

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morphine and heroin

stronger, more addictive drugs derived from opium

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codeine

weaker and less addictive member of opiate family.

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hallucinogens

psychoactive drugs that alter sensation and perception and that may create hallucinations. mimic serotonin and epinephrine.

52

hypnosis

a trance-like state of consciousness, usually induced by a procedure known as hypnotic induction, which consists of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus

53

sensory deprivation

intentional reduction of stimuli affecting one or more of the five senses, with the possibility of resulting changes in consciousness

54

meditation

techniques in which the individual focuses on something specific, such as an object, a word, or one's breathing, with the goal of ignoring external distractions, focusing on one's internal state, and a achieving a state of relaxation and well-being