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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (62):
1

development

the physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout human life, which are guided by both genetic predispositions (nature) and by environmental influences (nurture)

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infancy

the developmental stage that begins at birth and continues to one year of age

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childhood

the period between infancy and the onset of puberty

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adolescence

the years between the onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood

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adulthood stages

emerging, early, middle, older

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conception

when an ovum, or egg, previously stored in one of the mother's ovaries, matures and is released into fallopian tube

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zygote

a fertilized ovum,

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differentiate

when dividing cells in a zygote start to take on a different function

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amniotic sac

the fluid-filled reservoir in which the embryo (soon to be fetus) will live until live birth, which acts as both a cushion against outside pressure and as a temperature regulator

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placenta

an organ that allows the exchange of nutrients between the embryo and the mother, while at the same time filtering out harmful material

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umbilical cord

links the embryo directly to the placenta and transfers all material to the fetus

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teratogens

substances that harm the fetus

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fetal alcohol syndrome

a condition caused by maternal alcohol drinking that can lead to numerous detrimental developmental effects, including limb and facial abnormalities

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rooting reflex

cheek stroked->turns toward stroking, opens mouth, tries to suck. to help get food

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blink reflex

light flashed in eyes->closes eyes. to protect from harmful stimulus

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withdrawal reflex

a soft pinprick is applied to the sole of the baby's foot->baby flexes the leg. keeps infant away from painful stimuli

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tonic neck reflex

laid down on back->turns its head to one side and extends the arm on same side. to develop hand eye coordination.

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grasp reflex

object pressed into palm->baby grasps object. helps with exploratory learning

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moro reflex

loud noises or sudden drop in height while holding baby->extends arms and legs and brings them in as if to grab. to protect from falling+hold onto mothers.

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stepping reflex

baby suspending over a surface and moved forwards->baby makes stepping motions. to encourage motor development

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Erik Erikson's childhood development skills

children must attain initiative, competence, and independence

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Piaget's stage model of cognitive development

children gain their cognitive ability in developmental order

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schemas

patterns of knowledge in long-term memory, that help them remember, organize and respond to information. developed by children

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assimilation

use already developed schemas to understand new information

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accommodation

learning new information, and changing the schema

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Piaget's stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

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sensorimotor stage

birth-2 years. The child experiences the world through the fundamental senses of seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting. Gain: object permanence.

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preoperational

2-7 years. children acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. They also start to see the world through others' eyes. Intuitive understanding of world. Gain: theory of mind; rapid increase in language ability

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concrete operational

7-11 years. children become able to think logically, they can increasingly perform operations on imaginary objects. gain: conservation

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formal operational

11-adulthood. adolescents can think systematically, can reason about abstract concepts, and can understand ethics and scientific reasoning. gain: abstract logic

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egocentric

unable to readily see and understand other peoples' viewpoints

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theory of mind

the ability to take another person's viewpoint, developed mainly during pre operational stage

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conservation

understanding that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily mean changes in the quantity of the object

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sociocultural theory

cognitive development not entirely within the child, also through social interactions

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community learning

in which children serve as both teachers and learners

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self-concept

a knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs and about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals

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social comparison

age 5 or 6. comparison of self to others, i.e. "he is a faster runner"

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attachment

the emotional bonds that we develop with those with whom we feel closest, and particularly the bonds that an infant develops with the mother or primary caregiver

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strange situation test

test conducted in a context that is unfamiliar to the child and therefore likely to heighten the child's need for his or her parent

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child attachment styles

secure, ambilvant/insecure-resistant, avoidant/insecure-avoidant, disorganized

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secure

explores freely when mom around, engages with stranger, upset but easily soothed

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ambivalent/insecure-resistant

wary in general, clingy to mom, distressed when leaves and ambivalent when returns

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avoidant/insecure-avoidant

avoid ignore mother, avoid ignore stranger, not explore much. might run away from mother

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disorganized

no consistent way of coping with changes

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teen stages of identity development

identity-diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, identity-achievement

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identity-diffusion status

individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress towards them

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foreclosure status

the individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has developed an identity based on the choices or values of others

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moratorium status

individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of them

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identity-achievement status

the individual has attained a coherent and committed identity based on personal decisions

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social identity

the part of the self-concept that is derived from one's groups memberships

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morality

standards of behavior that are generally agreed on in a culture to be right or proper

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pre conventional morality

until the age of 9, children focus on self-interest. at this stage, punishment is avoided and rewards are sought.

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conventional morality

older children, adolescents, most adults. values good derived from most social norms.

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postconventional morality

many adults. employing abstract reasoning to justify behavior.

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adulthood stage ages

25-45: early, 45-65: middle

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authoritarian parents

demanding but not responsive

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permissive parents

few demands, few punishment, responsive

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authoritative parents

demanding but responsive

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menopause

the cessation of the menstrual cycle

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social clock

culturally preferred "right time" for major life events, such as moving out of childhood house, getting married, having children

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dementia

a progressive neurological disease that includes loss of cognitive abilities significant enough to interfere with everyday behaviors

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Alzheimer's disease

a form of dementia, over a period of years, leads to a loss of emotions, cognitions, and physical functioning, and which is ultimately fatal.