Flashcards in Chapter 4 Section 1+2 Deck (52):
awareness resulting from the stimulation of a sense organ
organization and interpretation of sensations
seeing, hearing, smell, touch, tasting, proprioception
the conversion of stimuli into receptor cells to electrical impulses that are sent to the brain
the branch of psychology that studies the effects of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions and mental states
the intensity of a stimulus that allows an organism to just barely detect it. conscious stimulus we can detect >50% of the time.
signal detection analysis
a technique used to determine the ability of the perceiver to separate true signals from background noise
signal detection analysis responses
hit: correct yes. false alarm: incorrect yes. miss: incorrect no. correct rejection: correct no.
true ability of individual to detect presence or absence of signals
behavior tendency to respond yes to trials
just noticeable difference
the change in stimulus that can just barely be detected by an organism
just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion to the original intensity of the stimulus
events that occur below the absolute threshold and of which we are not conscious
a condition in which people are unable to consciously report on visual stimuli but nevertheless are able to accurately answer questions about what they're seeing
pulses of energy waves that can carry information from place to place
the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak
400-700nm, parts of em spectrum human eye can see.
a clear covering that protects the eye and begins to focus the incoming light
small opening in the center of the eye
colored part of center of eye that controls the pupil by restricting or dilating in response to light intensity
behind the pupil. a structure that focuses incoming light on the retina
layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells
the process of changing the curvature of the lens to keep the light entering the eye focused on the retina
person's focus is in front of the retina
person's focus is behind the retina
once light hits retina
received by rods and cones receptor cells, then spreads to bipolar and then ganglion cells (optic nerve)
collection of millions of ganglion neurons that sends vast amount of visual information via the thalamus to the brain
visual receptors focused on black, white, and gray. helpful in dim light, at night
visual neurons that are specialized in detecting fine details and color
central point of retina
no photoreceptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina
feature detector neurons
specialized neurons, located in the visual cortex, that respond to the strength, angles, shapes, edges, and movements of a visual stimulous
shade of color
hue. conveyed by wavelength of the light that enters enters the eye. combination of red, green, and blue.
height (amplitude of the wave). brightness in light
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic color theory
what color we see depends on the mix of signals from the three types of cones
inability to detect either green or red colors
opponent-process color theory
opposed to Young-helmholtz theory, that we analyze sensory information not in terms of three colors but rather in sets of "opponent colors": red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black. supported by excitation and inhibitions of different neurons linked to different colors.
a meaningfully organized whole
figure and ground
tendency to see figures against grounds (backgrounds), i.e. two faces=vase
tendency to group stimuli that are similar to each other. i.e. XYXYXYXYX seen as groups of XYX
tendency to group nearby figures together
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tendency to percieve stimuli in smooth, continuous ways rather than in more discontinuous ways
we tend to fill gaps in i.e. the cones in the circle
the ability to perceive three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distance
a mechanism that gives the perception of a dangerous drop-off, in which infants can be safely tested for their perception of depth
messages from our bodies and the external environment that supply us with information about space and distance
binocular depth cues
depth cues created by retinal image disparity, that is, the space between our eyes, and thus which require the coordination of both eyes
the inward turning of our eyes that is required to focus on objects that are less than 50 feet away from us
muscle changes around lens during accommodation tell us about how far away something is.
monocular depth cues
depth cues that help us perceive depth using only one eye.
the beta effect
the perception of motion that occurs when different images are presented next to each other in succession . used to make movies possible.