Chapter 4 Section 1+2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Section 1+2 Deck (52):
1

sensation

awareness resulting from the stimulation of a sense organ

2

perception

organization and interpretation of sensations

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six senses

seeing, hearing, smell, touch, tasting, proprioception

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transduction

the conversion of stimuli into receptor cells to electrical impulses that are sent to the brain

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psychophysics

the branch of psychology that studies the effects of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions and mental states

6

absolute threshold

the intensity of a stimulus that allows an organism to just barely detect it. conscious stimulus we can detect >50% of the time.

7

signal detection analysis

a technique used to determine the ability of the perceiver to separate true signals from background noise

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signal detection analysis responses

hit: correct yes. false alarm: incorrect yes. miss: incorrect no. correct rejection: correct no.

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sensitivity

true ability of individual to detect presence or absence of signals

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response bias

behavior tendency to respond yes to trials

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just noticeable difference

the change in stimulus that can just barely be detected by an organism

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weber's law

just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion to the original intensity of the stimulus

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subliminal stimuli

events that occur below the absolute threshold and of which we are not conscious

14

blindsight

a condition in which people are unable to consciously report on visual stimuli but nevertheless are able to accurately answer questions about what they're seeing

15

electromagnetic energy

pulses of energy waves that can carry information from place to place

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wavelength

the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak

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visible spectrum

400-700nm, parts of em spectrum human eye can see.

18

cornea

a clear covering that protects the eye and begins to focus the incoming light

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pupil

small opening in the center of the eye

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iris

colored part of center of eye that controls the pupil by restricting or dilating in response to light intensity

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lens

behind the pupil. a structure that focuses incoming light on the retina

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retina

layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells

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visual accomodation

the process of changing the curvature of the lens to keep the light entering the eye focused on the retina

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nearsighted

person's focus is in front of the retina

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farsighted

person's focus is behind the retina

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once light hits retina

received by rods and cones receptor cells, then spreads to bipolar and then ganglion cells (optic nerve)

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optic nerve

collection of millions of ganglion neurons that sends vast amount of visual information via the thalamus to the brain

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rods

visual receptors focused on black, white, and gray. helpful in dim light, at night

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cones

visual neurons that are specialized in detecting fine details and color

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fovea

central point of retina

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blind spot

no photoreceptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina

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feature detector neurons

specialized neurons, located in the visual cortex, that respond to the strength, angles, shapes, edges, and movements of a visual stimulous

33

shade of color

hue. conveyed by wavelength of the light that enters enters the eye. combination of red, green, and blue.

34

intensity

height (amplitude of the wave). brightness in light

35

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic color theory

what color we see depends on the mix of signals from the three types of cones

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color blindness

inability to detect either green or red colors

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opponent-process color theory

opposed to Young-helmholtz theory, that we analyze sensory information not in terms of three colors but rather in sets of "opponent colors": red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black. supported by excitation and inhibitions of different neurons linked to different colors.

38

gestalt

a meaningfully organized whole

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figure and ground

tendency to see figures against grounds (backgrounds), i.e. two faces=vase

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similarity

tendency to group stimuli that are similar to each other. i.e. XYXYXYXYX seen as groups of XYX

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proximity

tendency to group nearby figures together
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continuity

tendency to percieve stimuli in smooth, continuous ways rather than in more discontinuous ways

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closure

we tend to fill gaps in i.e. the cones in the circle

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depth perception

the ability to perceive three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distance

45

visual cliff

a mechanism that gives the perception of a dangerous drop-off, in which infants can be safely tested for their perception of depth

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depth cues

messages from our bodies and the external environment that supply us with information about space and distance

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binocular depth cues

depth cues created by retinal image disparity, that is, the space between our eyes, and thus which require the coordination of both eyes

48

convergence

the inward turning of our eyes that is required to focus on objects that are less than 50 feet away from us

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accommodation

muscle changes around lens during accommodation tell us about how far away something is.

50

monocular depth cues

depth cues that help us perceive depth using only one eye.

51

the beta effect

the perception of motion that occurs when different images are presented next to each other in succession . used to make movies possible.

52

the phi phenomenon

we percieve a sensation of motion caused by the appearance and disappearance of objects that are near each other