Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (47):
the ability to think, learn form experience, to solve problems, and to adapt to new situations
intelligence quotient. measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age.
IQ = mental age / chronological age * 100
a system of communication that uses symbols in a regular way to create meaning. the "crown jewel of cognition"
general intelligence factor
the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common
Sanford-binet intelligence test
measure of g made of up wide variety of tasks including vocabulary, memory for pictures, naming of familiar objects, repeating sentences, foolingg commands
a measure of specific skills in narrow domains
refers to the capacity to learn new ways of solving problems and performing activities
primary mental abilities
seven clusters of intelligence: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory
triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence
people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
five components that are likely to be important for creativity
expertise, imaginative thinking, risk taking, intrinsic interests, working in a creative environment
creative people have studied and know a lot about the topic that they are studying
create people often view a problem in a visual way, allowing them to see it from a new and different point of view
creative people are willing to take on new but potentially risky approaches
creative people tend to work on projects because they love doing them, not because they are paid for them. In fact, research has found that people who are paid to be creative are often less creative than those who are not
working in a creative environment
creativity is in part a social phenomenon. most creative people are supported, aided, and challenged by other people working on similar projects.
a type of street smarts or common sense, learned from life experiences. not book learning.
people who score low on overall intelligence tests overall but may have exceptional skills in a given domain such as math, music, art, or in being able to recite statistics.
Gardner's 8 specific intelligence
linguistic, logico-mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic
standardization of intelligence test
giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level
observation that scores on intelligence tests worldwide have increased substantially over the past decades
the age at which a person is performing intellectually
wechsler adult intelligence scale
the most widely used intelligence test for adults
measure one's ability to perform a given task, for instance, to do well in college or in postgrad training.
the use of structured tests to select people are likely to perform well at given jobs
first step of making personnel selection
job analysis, in which psychologists determine what knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics are required for a given job.
normal distribution (bell curve)
the pattern of scores usually observed in variable that clusters around the average
thinking that is directed toward finding the correct answer to a given problem
the ability to generate many different ideas for or solutions to a similar problem
a generalized disorder ascribed to people who have an IQ below 70, who have experienced deficits since childhood, and who have trouble with basic life skills, such as dressing and feeding oneself and communicating with others
a chromosonal disorder leading to a mental retardation caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosone
the proposal that one could improve the human species by encouraging or permitting reproduction of only those people
elementary sounds of our language. the smallest unit of sound that makes a meaningful difference in a language
smallest unit of meaning in a language. a string of one or more phonemes that makes up the smallest units of meaning in a language
the set of grammatical rules that control how words are put together
the elements of communication that are not part of the content of language but that help us understanding its meaning. the information surrounding language
categorial perception of speech sounds
speakers of different language are able to hear the difference only between some phonemes but not others
an area in front of the left hemisphere near the motor cortex, responsible for language production
an area of the brain next to the auditory cortex. responsible for language comprehension
a condition in which functions are severely impaired. damage to both broca's and wernicke's area
intentional vocalizations that lack specific meaning
when a category word is extended beyond its real meaning by small children. for example daddy to mean
the fact that speakers of a language can compose sentences to represent new ideas that they have never been exposed to, as opposed to just being imitative. i.e. the word "swimmed"
with language acquisition device in brain, underlies all languages in the world in Noam Chomsky's idea. not really borne out.
deep structure of idea
Chomsky's idea, how the idea is represented in the fundamental universal grammar that is common to all languages
surface structure of the idea
how an idea is expressed in any one language
ways of human communication besides speech, such as eye contact, touch, hand signs, interpersonal distance. animals have these but without language