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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (47):
1

human intelligence

the ability to think, learn form experience, to solve problems, and to adapt to new situations

2

IQ

intelligence quotient. measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age.
IQ = mental age / chronological age * 100

3

language

a system of communication that uses symbols in a regular way to create meaning. the "crown jewel of cognition"

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general intelligence factor

the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common

5

Sanford-binet intelligence test

measure of g made of up wide variety of tasks including vocabulary, memory for pictures, naming of familiar objects, repeating sentences, foolingg commands

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specific intelligence

a measure of specific skills in narrow domains

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fluid intelligence

refers to the capacity to learn new ways of solving problems and performing activities

8

primary mental abilities

seven clusters of intelligence: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory

9

triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence

people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence

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five components that are likely to be important for creativity

expertise, imaginative thinking, risk taking, intrinsic interests, working in a creative environment

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expertise

creative people have studied and know a lot about the topic that they are studying

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imaginative thinking

create people often view a problem in a visual way, allowing them to see it from a new and different point of view

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risk taking

creative people are willing to take on new but potentially risky approaches

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intrinsic interest

creative people tend to work on projects because they love doing them, not because they are paid for them. In fact, research has found that people who are paid to be creative are often less creative than those who are not

15

working in a creative environment

creativity is in part a social phenomenon. most creative people are supported, aided, and challenged by other people working on similar projects.

16

practical intelligence

a type of street smarts or common sense, learned from life experiences. not book learning.

17

autistic savants

people who score low on overall intelligence tests overall but may have exceptional skills in a given domain such as math, music, art, or in being able to recite statistics.

18

Gardner's 8 specific intelligence

linguistic, logico-mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic

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standardization of intelligence test

giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level

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flynn effect

observation that scores on intelligence tests worldwide have increased substantially over the past decades

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mental age

the age at which a person is performing intellectually

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wechsler adult intelligence scale

the most widely used intelligence test for adults

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aptitude tests

measure one's ability to perform a given task, for instance, to do well in college or in postgrad training.

24

personell selection

the use of structured tests to select people are likely to perform well at given jobs

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first step of making personnel selection

job analysis, in which psychologists determine what knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics are required for a given job.

26

normal distribution (bell curve)

the pattern of scores usually observed in variable that clusters around the average

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convergent thinking

thinking that is directed toward finding the correct answer to a given problem

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divergent thinking

the ability to generate many different ideas for or solutions to a similar problem

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mental retardation

a generalized disorder ascribed to people who have an IQ below 70, who have experienced deficits since childhood, and who have trouble with basic life skills, such as dressing and feeding oneself and communicating with others

30

Down syndrome

a chromosonal disorder leading to a mental retardation caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosone

31

eugenics

the proposal that one could improve the human species by encouraging or permitting reproduction of only those people

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phonemes

elementary sounds of our language. the smallest unit of sound that makes a meaningful difference in a language

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morphemes

smallest unit of meaning in a language. a string of one or more phonemes that makes up the smallest units of meaning in a language

34

syntax

the set of grammatical rules that control how words are put together

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contextual information

the elements of communication that are not part of the content of language but that help us understanding its meaning. the information surrounding language

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categorial perception of speech sounds

speakers of different language are able to hear the difference only between some phonemes but not others

37

broca's area

an area in front of the left hemisphere near the motor cortex, responsible for language production

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wernicke's area

an area of the brain next to the auditory cortex. responsible for language comprehension

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aphasia

a condition in which functions are severely impaired. damage to both broca's and wernicke's area

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babbling

intentional vocalizations that lack specific meaning

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overextensions

when a category word is extended beyond its real meaning by small children. for example daddy to mean

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generativity

the fact that speakers of a language can compose sentences to represent new ideas that they have never been exposed to, as opposed to just being imitative. i.e. the word "swimmed"

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universal grammar

with language acquisition device in brain, underlies all languages in the world in Noam Chomsky's idea. not really borne out.

44

deep structure of idea

Chomsky's idea, how the idea is represented in the fundamental universal grammar that is common to all languages

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surface structure of the idea

how an idea is expressed in any one language

46

nonverbal behaviors

ways of human communication besides speech, such as eye contact, touch, hand signs, interpersonal distance. animals have these but without language

47

linguistic relativity

the idea that language and its structures influence and limit human thought. now downplayed