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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Reading Deck (38):
1

data

any information collected through formal observation or measurement

2

research psychologists

use scientific method to explore origins of behavior

3

psychologist practitioners

use existing research to offer psychological help to people

4

people as everyday psychologists

everyday people try to understand the root causes of things in their everyday lives, so as to predict+act better next time

5

intuition problem

the way people gather and understand everyday info is often wrong. ex: overconfidence in visual ID of perps, ESP/astrology. Roots of this wrongness often studied in psych.

6

hindsight bias

When something happens and people believe that they could have predicted it, but they probably couldn't have

7

scientific method

Empirical study of nature. Collect, organize, analyze data. Scientific method is the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research.

8

values v facts

Values (beliefs) cannot be proven true or false, however, facts related to those values can be studied and made available to inform values. Facts can be proven false later

9

levels of explanation

perspectives used to understand behavior. Lower levels: biology, neurology. middle: individual characteristics, abilities. Highest: social groups and organization

10

example of uses of levels:

studying depression. low approach results in prozac (god bless), middle in psychotherapy, highest studying prevalence in man vs woman.

11

individual differences

variations among people in physical or psychological dimensions. one of the main difficulties in studying psychology, different things manifest themselves in vary different ways in different people.

12

multiply determined

influenced by multiple factors. something that is multiply determined is more difficult to study as you have to account of all these factors, which occur at different levels of explanation.

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multiply determined example

depression: biological imbalance in brain, lashing out leads to people to treat them negatively, two become intertwined

14

unconcious influece

big part of freud's thinking. a lot of what we do is outside of our consciousness, making it hard to study. repressed memories are ones we have discarded.

15

origins of scientific psychology

grew out of philosophy when scientific methods began to be applied

16

big 5 questions

Nature vs nuture (genetics vs experience), free will vs determinism, accuracy vs inaccuracy, councious vs unconscious processing, differences vs similiarities

17

nature v nurture

to what extent is ourselves determined by genetics vs our life experiences

18

heritability

Proportion of differences (physical and mental) between people that is due to genetics

19

free will vs determinism

how much do people have control over their own actions? Can our behaviors be predicted? recently thought: not as much control as thought

20

accuracy vs inaccuracy

how good are people at processing information? recent: good enough but far from perfect

21

concious vs unconscious processing

how aware are we of how we process information and what causes our actions?

22

differences vs similarities

how are we all similar and/or different? how big are the differences?

23

problem with philosophy as psychology

no methods to settle claims, not scientific

24

structuralism

from Wilhelm Wundt, field of psych that tries to identify basic elements/structures of psych experience. important the first big scientific approach to psych.

25

introspection

in which subjects create a "map" of their consciousness, by describing what happens as they do different mental tasks. Asks "What?"

26

ex of introspection

reporting WHAT sound takes longer than reporting heard sound: difference in time between sensation and perception.

27

functionalism

school of psych. tries to understand why animals and humans have developed psych aspects they currently possess. grew out of natural selection. no longer around but grew into evolutionary psych. the
asks "why?"

28

evolutionary psychology

branch of psych, applies natural selection to human and animal behavior. problem: difficult to test, no fossil record.

29

fitness

key component of evolutionary psych. how does having a given characteristic help an individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other members that don't have the characteristic. i.e. men get jealous to hold+protect mate.

30

psychodynamic psych

most familiar to most people. approach to human understanding that focuses on role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, memories.

31

behaviorism

school of psych that is based on premise that it's not possible to objectively study mind, psychologists should limit their attention to study of behavior itself

32

stimulus response

Ivan Pavlov's dog. events in environment trigger specific behavioral responses.

33

cognitive psych

a field of psych that studies mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment

34

neuroimaging

the use of various techniques to provide pictures of the structure of the living brain

35

socio-cultural psych

the study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior.

36

conformity

changing or beliefs and behaviors to be similar to people we care about

37

social norms

ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are shared by a group and believed by them to be appropriate

38

example of social norms east vs west

west promotes individualism, east collectivism. westerners more interested in their own success but easterners are happy about success of others