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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Reading Deck (56):
1

basic research

answers fundamental questions about behavior

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applied research

investigates issues that have implications for everyday life, provides solutions for everyday problems, i.e., is applicable
ex: what is most effective treatment for depression

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scientific method

guides psychology. set of assumptions, rules, and procedures scientists use to conduct research

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objectivity

freedom from personal bias of the scientists

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replicate

most research is designed to repeat, add to, or modify other research: resulting in accumulation

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scientific law

statements so general they apply to all situations within a given domain of inquiry

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theory

an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many but not all observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry

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four good theory aspects

general: summarize many different outcomes. parsimonious: they provide simplest possible account of these outcomes.
provides ideas for future research
is falsifiable

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falsifiable

variables of intersest can be adequately measured and the relationships between predicted by the theory can be shown through research to be incorrect

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research hypothesis

a specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between two+ variables or among two+

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variable

any attribute that can assume different values among different peoples, times or places

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conceptual variables

abstract ideas that form basis of research hypothesis: i.e. "cog development", "learning", "self-esteem"

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measured variables

variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables.

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operational definition

a precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable

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most direct ethical concern for scientist

prevent harm to subject

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deception

when a participant in research is not informed of the nature of the project, active or passive. based on what data is wanted from the participant

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institutional review board

a committee of at least five members, whose goal it is to determine the cost-benefit ratio of research at that institution. can OK, suggest modify, or outright veto research, including for ethical reasons

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informed consent

conducted before a participant begins a research session, designed to explain the research procedures and inform participant of his/her rights during it.

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debriefing

after a research, explaining purposes and procedure of research and reducing harmful after effects

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research design

specific method a researcher uses to collect, analyze, and interpret data

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descriptive research

designed to present snapshot of current state of affairs.
a: describes thoroughly what is happening at a given time, leads to/suggests more questions for study
d: Does not explore relationships between variables, potentially unethical if subject doesn't know they're being studied

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correlational research

designed to assess relationship between two or more variables
Allows testing of predicted relationships between/among vars.
d: cannot draw conclusions about causal relations, can see what and but not why

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experimental research

initial equivalence is created for more than one group, then an experience is adjusted for one group, the change brought by the adjustment is what is measured
a: most thorough, allows causal conclusions about relationships
d: expensive and time consuming, only manipulate few vars at a time.

24

case study

a kind of descriptive research. descriptive records of one or more individual's experiences and behavior. by looking at one person, usually with abnormal experiences or characteristics, trying to learn about human nature

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survey

a measure administered through either an interview or a written questionnaire to get a picture of the beliefs or behaviors of a sample of a people of interest

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sample

a selection of people from a population that the researcher wants to know about

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naturalistic observation

research based on the observation of everyday events.

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descriptive statistics

numbers that summarize the distribution of scores on a measured variable

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normal distribution

i.e. bell curve. usual data distribution, with most elements concentrated at center, with symmetrical distribution around it

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artithmetic mean

just an average. most commonly used measure of central tendency (point in which the distribution around which the data is centered)

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median

score at center of distribution, 50% are greater and half are less.

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mode

what value occurs most frequently

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standard deviation

's' most commonly used measure of dispersion

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scatter plot

representation of two values on a graph, useful in correlational and experimental studies.

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scatter plot relationship types

pos linear: one goes higher, the other goes higher
neg linear: one goes higher, the other lower
nonlinear: can't be described with straight line
independent: no relationship seen between the two
direction of line changes: curvilinear

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pearson correlation coefficient

'r'. from -1.00 to 1.00, measure of strength of linear relationship. negative number means negative relationship, further from zero is stronger.

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multiple regression analysis

stat technique, based on correlation between vars, where one result variable is drawn out of more than one predictor variable.

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common-causal variable

a variable that is not part of research hypothesis, but affects both predictor and outcome variable, causing the observed correlation between them

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spurious relationship

a relationship between two variables in which a common-causal variable is the reason for the apparent relationship between them

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independent variable

the variable that is causing the other, measured one to change, is directly changed by the researcher

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dependent variable

variable whose value is hopefully dependent on the other one's, this is the one measured by the experimenter

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initial equivalence

groups at beginning of experiment are the same, they are changed/affected as part of the experiment

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experimental advantages and disadvantages

advantages: sound and empirical methodology allows study of causal relationships.
disadvantages: unable to test social factors, lab setting instead of everyday life

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valid research

if conclusions are legitimate. Perfectly valid research has no errors in the design of the experiment and the analysis of it.

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construct validity

how well measured variables represented conceptual variables, quality of operational definition

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reliability

getting the same results over and over, identical output from identical input. a part of construct validity, quality of the variables measured.

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statistical significance

how sure a scientist can be that some statistical results were not from chance or random error. Good statistical significance means there likely IS a relationship between the two things measured.

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statistical conclusion validity

How statistically sound the results of a paper are. High statistical significance means results are likely the result of a relationship and it's ok to draw inferences from the data. Can never be 100% sure about this though. 5% is what researchers aim for.

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internal validity

primarily applies to indep vs dep relationships. how much can we trust inferences about the causal relationship shown? Relationship affected by confounding variables

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confounding variables

variables other than independent variable on which the participants one one experimental condition differ systematically from others

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experimenter bias

when an expectation from someone running an experiment somehow affects the outcome of the experiment, by treating different groups in different ways, becoming a confounding variable

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double-blind experiment

both researchers and participants are blind to the condition, i.e. don't know which pills are real/placebo or which cups had vodka

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external validity

extent to which the results of a research design can be broadened out beyond conduct of original experiment

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generalization

extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and wide variety of manipulated/measured variables

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replication

repeating of previous research, forms the basis of all scientific inquiry

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meta-analysis

stat technique that integrates the results of multiple studies and draws conclusions from that. 1. specifies inclusion criteria, 2. finds all studies that meet it, 3. provides objective measure of strength of observed relationships