Flashcards in Chapter 2 Reading Deck (56):
answers fundamental questions about behavior
investigates issues that have implications for everyday life, provides solutions for everyday problems, i.e., is applicable
ex: what is most effective treatment for depression
guides psychology. set of assumptions, rules, and procedures scientists use to conduct research
freedom from personal bias of the scientists
most research is designed to repeat, add to, or modify other research: resulting in accumulation
statements so general they apply to all situations within a given domain of inquiry
an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many but not all observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry
four good theory aspects
general: summarize many different outcomes. parsimonious: they provide simplest possible account of these outcomes.
provides ideas for future research
variables of intersest can be adequately measured and the relationships between predicted by the theory can be shown through research to be incorrect
a specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between two+ variables or among two+
any attribute that can assume different values among different peoples, times or places
abstract ideas that form basis of research hypothesis: i.e. "cog development", "learning", "self-esteem"
variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables.
a precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable
most direct ethical concern for scientist
prevent harm to subject
when a participant in research is not informed of the nature of the project, active or passive. based on what data is wanted from the participant
institutional review board
a committee of at least five members, whose goal it is to determine the cost-benefit ratio of research at that institution. can OK, suggest modify, or outright veto research, including for ethical reasons
conducted before a participant begins a research session, designed to explain the research procedures and inform participant of his/her rights during it.
after a research, explaining purposes and procedure of research and reducing harmful after effects
specific method a researcher uses to collect, analyze, and interpret data
designed to present snapshot of current state of affairs.
a: describes thoroughly what is happening at a given time, leads to/suggests more questions for study
d: Does not explore relationships between variables, potentially unethical if subject doesn't know they're being studied
designed to assess relationship between two or more variables
Allows testing of predicted relationships between/among vars.
d: cannot draw conclusions about causal relations, can see what and but not why
initial equivalence is created for more than one group, then an experience is adjusted for one group, the change brought by the adjustment is what is measured
a: most thorough, allows causal conclusions about relationships
d: expensive and time consuming, only manipulate few vars at a time.
a kind of descriptive research. descriptive records of one or more individual's experiences and behavior. by looking at one person, usually with abnormal experiences or characteristics, trying to learn about human nature
a measure administered through either an interview or a written questionnaire to get a picture of the beliefs or behaviors of a sample of a people of interest
a selection of people from a population that the researcher wants to know about
research based on the observation of everyday events.
numbers that summarize the distribution of scores on a measured variable
i.e. bell curve. usual data distribution, with most elements concentrated at center, with symmetrical distribution around it
just an average. most commonly used measure of central tendency (point in which the distribution around which the data is centered)
score at center of distribution, 50% are greater and half are less.
what value occurs most frequently
's' most commonly used measure of dispersion
representation of two values on a graph, useful in correlational and experimental studies.
scatter plot relationship types
pos linear: one goes higher, the other goes higher
neg linear: one goes higher, the other lower
nonlinear: can't be described with straight line
independent: no relationship seen between the two
direction of line changes: curvilinear
pearson correlation coefficient
'r'. from -1.00 to 1.00, measure of strength of linear relationship. negative number means negative relationship, further from zero is stronger.
multiple regression analysis
stat technique, based on correlation between vars, where one result variable is drawn out of more than one predictor variable.
a variable that is not part of research hypothesis, but affects both predictor and outcome variable, causing the observed correlation between them
a relationship between two variables in which a common-causal variable is the reason for the apparent relationship between them
the variable that is causing the other, measured one to change, is directly changed by the researcher
variable whose value is hopefully dependent on the other one's, this is the one measured by the experimenter
groups at beginning of experiment are the same, they are changed/affected as part of the experiment
experimental advantages and disadvantages
advantages: sound and empirical methodology allows study of causal relationships.
disadvantages: unable to test social factors, lab setting instead of everyday life
if conclusions are legitimate. Perfectly valid research has no errors in the design of the experiment and the analysis of it.
how well measured variables represented conceptual variables, quality of operational definition
getting the same results over and over, identical output from identical input. a part of construct validity, quality of the variables measured.
how sure a scientist can be that some statistical results were not from chance or random error. Good statistical significance means there likely IS a relationship between the two things measured.
statistical conclusion validity
How statistically sound the results of a paper are. High statistical significance means results are likely the result of a relationship and it's ok to draw inferences from the data. Can never be 100% sure about this though. 5% is what researchers aim for.
primarily applies to indep vs dep relationships. how much can we trust inferences about the causal relationship shown? Relationship affected by confounding variables
variables other than independent variable on which the participants one one experimental condition differ systematically from others
when an expectation from someone running an experiment somehow affects the outcome of the experiment, by treating different groups in different ways, becoming a confounding variable
both researchers and participants are blind to the condition, i.e. don't know which pills are real/placebo or which cups had vodka
extent to which the results of a research design can be broadened out beyond conduct of original experiment
extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and wide variety of manipulated/measured variables
repeating of previous research, forms the basis of all scientific inquiry