Chapter 8 Reading Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Reading Deck (98):
1

memory

the ability to store and retrieve information over time

2

memory

the ability to store and retrieve information over time

3

cognition

the processes of acquiring and using knowledge

4

explicit memory

knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered

5

episodid memory

type of explicit. firsthand experiences that we have had

6

semantic memory

our knowledge of facts and concepts about the world

7

relearning

measured to asses how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has been learned but forgotten

8

procedural memory

our often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things i.e. speaking english, riding a bike

9

classical conditioning

unconscious associations, relating one stimulus to another

10

priming

changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequenty or recently

11

recall test

a measure of explicit memory that involves bringing from memory information that has previously been remembered

12

recognition memory test

a measure of explicit memory that involves determining whether other information has been seen or learned before

13

impicit memory

influence of experience on behavior

14

word fragment test

test of priming. words with blank letters aren't recognizable until after you read a sentence with them.

15

sensory memory

brief storage of sensory information.

16

iconic memory

visual sensory memory ~250 milliseconds. a small buffer for the brain to see the world continulously

17

auditory sensory memory

"echoic memory". lasts four seconds, long enough to remember my sentence or prof to take notes.

18

edetic memory

"photographic memory", sensory data persists much longer. i.e. mozart being able to play back music.

19

short-term memory

"STM", the place where small amounts of information can be temporarily kept for more than a few seconds but usually less than one minute

20

working memory

the processes that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information in STM

21

central executive

part of working memory directs attention and processing

22

maintenance rehearsal

the process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory

23

chunking

the process of organizing information into smaller groupings (chunks), thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in STM

24

long-term memory

memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years

25

long term memory process

memory must be encoded, stored, and then retrieved

26

spacing effect

the fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs together or at the same time

27

distributed practice

practice spread out over time

28

massed practice

practice that comes in one block

29

overlearning

continuing to practice even when we think that we have mastered the material. good idea

30

retrieval

the process of reactivating that has been stored in memory

31

tip-of-the-toungue phenomena

when you feel certain that we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it

32

context-dependent learning

an increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered

33

state-dependent learning

superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding

34

serial position curve

variations in the ability to retrieve information based on position learned.

35

primacy effect

a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented earlier in a list

36

recency effect

the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list

37

retroactive interference

when learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that we learned earlier

38

proactive interference

earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later

39

categories

networks of associated memories that have features in common with each other

40

speading activation

screwdriver makes people remember wrench. how things in a category relate activatedly to each other.

41

defining features

something that is true for all members of a long-term memory category. such as birds lay eggs and triangles have three sides. not all categories have them

42

shcemas

patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information

43

long-term potentiation

the strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as a result of frequent stimulation. period when this occurs is known as consolidation

44

cerebellum

holds implicit memories

45

hippocampus

handles explicit memories

46

amygdala

handles emotional memories

47

amnesia

a memory disorder that involves the inability to remember information

48

retrograde amnesia

a memory disorder that involves an inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time

49

anterograde amnesia

the inability to transfer information from short-term into long-term memory

50

the ability to store and retrieve information over time

memory

51

the processes of acquiring and using knowledge

cognition

52

knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered

explicit memory

53

type of explicit. firsthand experiences that we have had

episodid memory

54

our knowledge of facts and concepts about the world

semantic memory

55

measured to asses how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has been learned but forgotten

relearning

56

our often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things i.e. speaking english, riding a bike

procedural memory

57

unconscious associations, relating one stimulus to another

classical conditioning

58

changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequenty or recently

priming

59

a measure of explicit memory that involves bringing from memory information that has previously been remembered

recall test

60

a measure of explicit memory that involves determining whether other information has been seen or learned before

recognition memory test

61

influence of experience on behavior

impicit memory

62

test of priming. words with blank letters aren't recognizable until after you read a sentence with them.

word fragment test

63

brief storage of sensory information.

sensory memory

64

visual sensory memory ~250 milliseconds. a small buffer for the brain to see the world continulously

iconic memory

65

"echoic memory". lasts four seconds, long enough to remember my sentence or prof to take notes.

auditory sensory memory

66

"photographic memory", sensory data persists much longer. i.e. mozart being able to play back music.

edetic memory

67

"STM", the place where small amounts of information can be temporarily kept for more than a few seconds but usually less than one minute

short-term memory

68

the processes that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information in STM

working memory

69

part of working memory directs attention and processing

central executive

70

the process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory

maintenance rehearsal

71

the process of organizing information into smaller groupings (chunks), thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in STM

chunking

72

memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years

long-term memory

73

memory must be encoded, stored, and then retrieved

long term memory process

74

the fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs together or at the same time

spacing effect

75

practice spread out over time

distributed practice

76

practice that comes in one block

massed practice

77

continuing to practice even when we think that we have mastered the material. good idea

overlearning

78

the process of reactivating that has been stored in memory

retrieval

79

when you feel certain that we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it

tip-of-the-toungue phenomena

80

an increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered

context-dependent learning

81

superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding

state-dependent learning

82

variations in the ability to retrieve information based on position learned.

serial position curve

83

a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented earlier in a list

primacy effect

84

the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list

recency effect

85

when learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that we learned earlier

retroactive interference

86

earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later

proactive interference

87

networks of associated memories that have features in common with each other

categories

88

screwdriver makes people remember wrench. how things in a category relate activatedly to each other.

speading activation

89

something that is true for all members of a long-term memory category. such as birds lay eggs and triangles have three sides. not all categories have them

defining features

90

patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information

shcemas

91

the strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as a result of frequent stimulation. period when this occurs is known as consolidation

long-term potentiation

92

holds implicit memories

cerebellum

93

handles explicit memories

hippocampus

94

handles emotional memories

amygdala

95

a memory disorder that involves the inability to remember information

amnesia

96

a memory disorder that involves an inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time

retrograde amnesia

97

the inability to transfer information from short-term into long-term memory

anterograde amnesia

98