Chapter 3 Section 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Section 4 Deck (22):
1

nerves

bundles of interconnected neurons that fire in synchrony to carry messages

2

sensory/afferent neuron

carries information from sensory receptors

3

motor/efferent neuron

transmits information to the muscles and glands

4

interneuron

most common type, located mainly in CNS, responsible for communicating among the neurons

5

spinal cord

long, thin, tubular, bundle of nerves and supporting cells that extends down from the brain

6

reflex

involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus

7

autonomic nervous system

division of PNS that governs internal activities of human body, i.e. heart rate, breathing, digestion, salivation, perspiration, urination, sexual arousal

8

somatic nervous system

division of PNS that controls external aspects of the body, including skeletal muscles, skin, and sense organs.

9

sympathetic ANS division

division of ANS involved in preparing body for behavior, particularly in response to stress, by activating the organs and the glands in the endocrine system

10

parasympathetic division of ANS

tends to calm the body by slowing the heart and breathing and by allowing the body to recover from activities caused by sympathetic division

11

homeostatis

natural balance in the body's systems. mainly brought about by interactions between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of ANS.

12

gland

part of endocrine system. groups of cells that function to secrete hormones

13

hormone

a chemical that moves throughout the body to help regulate emotions and behaviors

14

pituitary gland

a small pea-sized gland located near the center of the brain, responsible for controlling the body's growth. also governs sex hormones and response to pain

15

pancreas

secretes hormones to keep body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain storage of energy

16

pineal gland

secretes melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the wake-sleep cycle

17

thyroid and parathyroid glands

responsible for deterring how quickly the body uses energy and hormones, and controlling the amount of calcium

18

adrenal glands

one atop each kidney. produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, and they are involved in metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development/function

19

epinephrine/adrenalin and norepinephrine/noradrenalin

secreted by adrenal glands when we are stressed, stimulating sympathetic part of ANS

20

testes

male sex glands. secrete testosterone

21

testosterone

hormone that regulates sexual development, including enlargement of penis, deepening of voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, increase in muscle strength. associated with aggression

22

ovaries

female sex glands, located in pelvis. produce eggs and secrete estrogen and progesterone