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Flashcards in chapter 17 Deck (52):
1

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

arteries

2

blood vessels returning blood to the heart

veins

3

where is the heart located?

in the mediastinum between the second rib and fifth intercoastal space

4

double walled sac that encloses the heart

pericardium

5

epithelial membrane that covers the pericardium

serosa

6

2 layers of the serosa

parietal layer
visceral layer

7

major veins of the heart

small cardiac vein
anterior cardiac vein
coronary sinus
great cardiac veins

8

major arteries of the coronary circulation

right and left coronary artery
marginal artery
circumflex artery
anterior and posterior interventricular artery

9

which side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary circuit?

right heart

10

which side of the heart is the pump for the systemic circuit?

left heart

11

valves between the atria and ventricles

atrioventricular valves
AV valves

12

what connects smooth muscle cells and allows for ions to pass freely from cell to cell?

gap junctions

13

The pathway of blood from the heart to the lungs

Right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonary valve > pulmonary trunk > pulmonary arteries > lungs

14

Pathways of blood from the lungs through the heart

Lungs > pulmonary veins > left atrium > bicuspid valve > left ventricle > aortic valve > aorta > systemic circulation

15

Describe the cardiac muscle cells

striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected

16

3 ion channels of cardiac muscles

1.Na+ channels for Na + inflow
2.K + channels for K + outflow
3.Ca2+ channels for Ca2+ inflow

17

what triggers the opening of Ca sensitive channels in the SR

Ca influx

18

where is the tricuspid valve located?

between the right atrium and ventricle

19

where is the mitral valve located?

between the left atrium and ventricle

20

to which side of the body is the apex of the heart pointed?

left hip

21

what marks the exterior boundary between the ventricles?

anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus

22

cardiac muscle tissue is found in which layer of the heart?

myocardium

23

valve between the right atrium and ventricle

tricuspid

24

valve between the left atrium and ventricle

bicuspid or mitral valve

25

the anterior surface of the heart consists mostly of what chamber?

right ventricle

26

structure that prevents prolapse of the atrioventricular valves

chordae tendineae

27

how does oxygenated blood return to the heart?

through the pulmonary veins

28

where blood goes when it is pumped out of the left ventricle?

aorta

29

what prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle?

aortic semilunar valve

30

where does deoxygenated blood from the myocardium enter the right atrium through?

the coronary sinus

31

period of time when atrial repolarization occurs

QRS complex

32

another name for atrioventricular groove

coronary sulcus

33

where is 2/3rd of the heart located?

left of the midsternal line

34

2 layers of the pericardium

parietal and visceral

35

what covers the pericardium?

the serosa

36

3 ion channels of cardiac muscle

Ca - calcium
NA - sodium
K - potassium

37

The epicardium is also what layer of the pericardium?

the visceral layer

38

tough outer layer surrounding the pericardium

the superficial fibrous pericardium

39

what is it called when all cardiac muscle cells act as if they are one big cell?

functional syncytium

40

what is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

the myocardium

41

what do cardiac muscle cells have more of compared to skeletal muscle cells?

mitochondria

42

what causes action potential in cardiac muscle cells

Calcium

43

what causes repolarization in cardiac muscle cells

inactivation of the Ca channels and opening of voltage gates K+ channels

44

what is the voltage change during depolarization

-90mV to +30mV

45

which ventricle has a thicker wall?

the left ventricle

46

where does the myocardium receive its blood supply from?

coronary arteries

47

what provides collateral routes for blood delivery to the heart muscle

anastomoses

48

where are trabeculae carnae found?

in the ventricles

49

function of auricles

increase volume of the atria

50

where does the right atria receive blood from?

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus

51

what cone shaped muscles do both ventricles have?

papillary muscles

52

what muscles are found in the atria?

pectinate muscles