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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (72):
1

term for the flow of blood through a tissue or an organ

perfusion

2

where is blood flow the slowest?

capillaries

3

where is blood flow the fastest?

aorta

4

the formation of more blood vessles

angiogenesis

5

the major local factor causing dilation of arterioles

Nitric oxide (NO)

6

vasodilation

the dilation and relaxation of blood pressure

7

circulatory shock

Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally

8

Hypovolemic shock

results from large-scale blood loss

9

Vascular shock

results from extreme vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance

10

Cardiogenic shock

results when an inefficient heart cannot sustain adequate circulation

11

what does long term autoregulation of tissue perfusion depend on?

angiogenesis

12

how much can muscle blood flow increase by during physical activity?

10x

13

what can a MAP in the brain below 60 mm Hg cause?

syncope

14

what is syncope?

fainting

15

what can a MAP in the brain above 160 cause?

edema

16

what goes on in the heart during ventricular systole?

Coronary vessels are compressed
Myocardial blood flow ceases
Stored myoglobin supplies sufficient oxygen

17

what happens to the left over fluid that is not returned to the capillary?

it will be drained by the lymphatic system

18

5 parts of the Aorta

Ascending Aorta
Aortic Arch
Descending Aorta
Abdominal Aorta
Celiac Trunk

19

largest artery of the body

aorta

20

what supplies 80% of the brains blood

the internal carotids

21

5 main veins of the forearm

Radial
Ulnar
Basilic
Cephalic
Median Antebrachial

22

3 veins of the upper arm

Basilic
Brachial
Cephalic

23

2 deep veins of the lower leg

Anterior Tibial Vein
Posterior Tibial Vein

24

2 superficial veins of the lower leg

Small saphenous vein
Great saphenous vein

25

what do the internal and external iliac veins unite to form?

Common iliac Vein

26

2 types of short-term auto regulation of tissue perfusion

metabolic control
myogenic control

27

how does metabolic control work?

by making changes to the chemical environment

28

how does myogenic control work?

by making changes in muscles tone of the arterioles

29

The Frank Starling Law

The greater the stretch of the cardiac muscle cell, the greater the force of contraction.

30

why is blood flow through capillaries slow?

because of low pressure gradient along the blood vessel

31

why is blood flow through capillaries intermittent?

because opening and closing of precapillary sphincters

32

What type of substance diffuses directly through endothelium membranes?

Lipid-soluble

33

What type of substance passes through clefts and fenestrations between cells?

Water-soluble

34

The majority of water and ions move in and out of the capillaries via...?

bulk flow

35

What are the main forces that determine the direction and amount of flow through capillaries?

hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure

36

2 types of hydrostatic pressures

Capillary hydrostatic pressure and hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid

37

What is another name for capillary colloid osmotic pressure?

Oncotic pressure

38

What is capillary colloid osmotic pressure caused by?

Plasma proteins that draw back water into the vessel

39

What is a late sign of circulatory shock?

Acute hypotension

40

What are the three branches of the aortic arch?

-Brachiocephalic trunk
-left common carotid artery
-left subclavian artery

41

the first and shortest part of the Aorta

ascending aorta

42

What are the two branches of the ascending aorta?

Right and left coronary arteries

43

longest part of the aorta

descending aorta

44

What runs downward along the vertebral column before entering the abdominal cavity?

Thoracic aorta

45

What part of the descending aorta is below the diaphragm?

Abdominal aorta

46

What are the branches of the celiac trunk?

Common hepatic artery
Splenic artery
Left gastric artery

47

What does the abdominal aorta support?

Small and large intestines, adrenal glands, kidneys, gonads

48

What arteries supply the orbits and 80% of the brain?

Internal carotid arteries

49

where does the thoracic aorta run?

downward along the vertebral column before entering the abdominal

50

Once the femoral artery has passed through the adductor hiatus into the popliteal fossa it is called what?

Popliteal artery

51

What does the popliteal artery branch into?

Anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery

52

What artery supplies the lower limbs?

External iliac artery

53

All blood from areas below the diaphragm are carried back by the...

inferior vena cava

54

All blood from the areas above the diaphragm is carried back by the...

superior vena cava

55

Most of the blood from the brain, head, and neck is drained by three veins:

internal jugular vein
vertebral vein
external jugular vein

56

which veins connect the deep and superficial veins?

perforating veins

57

how long is the ascending aorta?

2inches

58

where do most most veins of the brain drain into?

the dural venous sinuses, which in turn drain into the internal jugular veins

59

Blood from the abdominal and thoracic wall is drained by two veins:

azygos vein and hemiazygos vein

60

The largest factor that promotes re-absorption of fluids, into blood, from the interstitial fluids

blood osmotic pressure

61

the most important capillary exchange method

bulk flow

62

3 branches of the abdominal aorta

celia trunk
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery

63

which vein drains blood from the radial and ulnar veins, then empties that blood into the axillary vein?

the brachial vein

64

why do substances tend to leave the bloodsteam at the arterial end of the capillary?

because blood pressure is higher at the arterial end of the capillary

65

common artery to take pulse of

radial artery

66

what does the internal iliac artery do?

supplies the pelvic structures

67

what does the external iliac arter do?

supplies the lower limbs

68

which vein drains the scalp?

external jugular vein

69

what does the subclavian vein do?

drains the upper extremities

70

major artery of the thigh

femoral artery

71

supplies liver, stomach, and spleen

celiac trunk

72

arteries that supply the intestines

superior and inferior mesenteric arteries