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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (53):
1

3 layers of Arteries and Veins

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica externa

2

2 types of Arteries

Elastic (Conducting) Arteries
Muscular (Distributing) Arteries and Arterioles

3

Another name of elastic arteries

Conducting Arteries

4

Another name for muscular arteries

Distributing arteries

5

3 types of Capillaries

Continuous Capillaries
Fenestrated Capillaries
Sinusoidal Capillaries

6

5 hormones that play a role in short term regulation of blood pressure

Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Angiotensin II
Atrial natriurectic peptide (ANP)
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

7

main factors influencing blood pressure

cardiac output
peripheral resistance
blood volume

8

vital signs

pulse blood
blood pressure
Respiratory rate
body temperature

9

what does hypertension cause?

heart failure
vascular disease
renal failure
stroke

10

where are chemoreceptors located?

carotid sinus
aortic arch
large arteries of the neck

11

structure of elastic or conducting arteries

thick walls and elastic fibers in all 3 layers

12

structure of muscular or distributing arteries

few elastic fibbers but a thick tunica media with a high percentage of smooth muscle

13

which type of capillary has tight junctions?

continuous capillaries

14

which type of capillary allows large molecules and blood cells to pass through?

sinusoidal capillaries

15

which capillaries contain pores?

fenestrated capillaries

16

which capillaries are only found the liver, bone marrow, and spleen?

sinosoidal capillaries

17

where is blood pressure the highest?

in the aorta

18

the highest pressure found during ventricular systole/contraction

systolic pressure

19

the lower pressure during the phase of ventricular relaxation/diastole

diastolic pressure

20

how to find pulse pressure

subtract diastolic pressure from systolic pressure

21

what is the unit used to measure blood pressure?

mm Hg

22

the pressure that pushes the blood along through the system

mean arterial pressure (MAP)

23

blood vessel that distributes blood to organs

arteries

24

Which artery wall is responsible for vasoconstruction?

tunica media

25

layer of the artery that is composed mainly of elastic and collagen fibers.

tunica externa

26

When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle contracts producing

a vascular spasm

27

which type of artery functions as a pressure reservoir?

Elastic arteries

28

After birth when the umbilical cord is cut what do the umbilical arteries fill with?

Connective tissue

29

the muscular layer of blood vessels

tunica media

30

what do venules unite to form?

veins

31

blood vessels that are able to constrict

arterioles

32

which vessels serve as a blood reservoir

veins

33

how is blood pressure written?

systolic pressure/ diastolic pressure

34

This part of the nervous system is responsible for vasomotor tone

Sympathetic

35

what do baroreceptor in arteries respond to?

an increase in blood pressure

36

what is the effect if Angiotensin II?

increases blood pressure by constricting blood vessels

37

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

38

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

39

effect of ADH

intense vasoconstriction in cases of extremely low blood pressure

40

effect of ANP

causes blood pressure to decline

41

effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine

increase the cardiac output by increasing heart rate and stroke volume

42

what performs long term regulation of blood pressure

the kidneys

43

healthy systolic BP

100-140mm Hg

44

healthy diastolic BP

70-90mm Hg

45

a sudden drop in BP when standing or sitting

orthostatic hypotension

46

how do the kidneys lower blood volume?

by producing urine

47

the two major factors that aid in the returning bloodflow

the respiratory pump and the muscular pump

48

how respiratory pump works

every time we breathe in, the pressure inside the thorax decreases which leads to blood being sucked upwards from the abdominal cavity

49

how muscular pump works

contraction of skeletal muscles pushes blood toward the heart because veins have valves

50

what effect does Aldosterone have?

increases blood volume by increasing absorption of sodium

51

what are short-term controls of blood pressure

neural and hormonal controls

52

the pressure that pushes blood along through the system

mean arterial pressure (MAP)

53

how to calculate MAP

diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure