Flashcards in Chapter 17 America Enters the World Stage Deck (108):
Describe US isolationism
Monroe Doctrine rules us - keep Europe out, protect South America
Describe Frederick Jackson Turner
Manifest destiny, fight slavery. american frontier was closed; must re-identify ourselves. now we can look outside our borders
Way-station for sailors traveling to different islands in the middle
Midway Islands (1867)
July 8, 1853: Commodore Mathew Perry travels there, US fleet goes there. Opens their ports and starts trading
Describe Alfred Mahan's, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
Need to focus money and attention on navy; control the seas
Our role now is to spread Christianity to make the world better. Civilize people into democracy, need to take care of people and make them better
The energetic, strong, and fit should rule. God made them healthy. Going to try to make everyone else strong and healthy
Purchased in March 1867. Secretary of State: __ __ ; president __. $7.2 million (2 cents an acre, double size of Texas)- owned by Russians. Milk joke (get ice cream)
Nicknames for Alaska
Seward's Folly, Frigida, President Andrew Johnson's Polar Bear Garden
What did the US get out of Alaska?
Lumber, coal, copper, oil, natural gas
Archipelago (many different islands) 2000 miles SW of San Francisco. Late 1700s- Missionaries. 1840: King Kamehameha III wrote constitution based on US constitution
Hawaii's biggest export
Raised tariff on sugar
McKinley Tariff of 1890
"Hawaii for Hawaiians", protectorate of the US
Why did they want a revolution?
to dethrone Queen
What was under the protection of the US after the revolution and who was the new Revolutionary president?
HawaiiSanford B Dole
First time North and South America had come together. Talk about trade and how to keep Europe out. Nothing came out of it
Pan-American Conference (1889)
Civil War- "Yanquis" supported the President. Drunken sailors from the USS Baltimore leave a bar
Chilean Crisis (1891-1892)
Crisis: where's the boundary b/w __ and __ __ __. President Cleveland sends Secretary of State __ __ to arbitrate. Said Monroe Doctrine applies to this, __ cheers this
Venezuela, British New GuineaRichard OlneyCaracas
Describe Results of Venezuela dispute
An independent arbitrator gave Britain most what it wanted but Europe and Latin America are on notice that the US is the most important nation in the Western Hemisphere
US seen as a protector of __ __ from Europe
What is the nickname of the Spanish American War (1898)?
"A splendid little War"
"Ever faithful isle"
Mainstay of Cuban economy is __ __. US puts heavy duties on __ and it hurts the economy
Guerrilla warfare, block railroads
Poet. Toured US and when he returned to Cuba, he was killed in a few days
Spain ruthlessly puts down the rebellion. Governor __ __ __ "The Butcher". ___: 500000 farmers, no longer rebel
General Valeriano WeyerReconcentrados
Why did the governor target farmers?
1) Cut off food supply of rebels2) Everyone out of camps can be considered rebels3) Over 200,000 die
Why did the US gov't send ship? What happened on 2/15/1898?
Investigate situation in CubaUSS Maine blows up
"Remember the Maine". 266 out of __ men on board were killed. What caused the Maine to explode from US and Spain? What are the thoughts now?
350US: Spain did itSpain: Mechanical ErrorNow: Mechanical error
Newspapers that have sensational headlines and pictures
Competed against each other with yellow journalism. What are the names of their newspapers?
W R Hearst: New York JournalJ Pulitzer: New York World
One of his pictures entitled Spain to strip searches of American women. Sent by __ to get pics of the Cuban Rebellion
Describe what Remington told Hearst, and Hearst's response
R: said there's no war and wants to go homeH: give me the pictures, I'll make up the war
__ asks Congress for a declaration of war
Congress adds the __. States US has no intention of taking Cuba for itself, wants to free the Cubans. War approved, America goes to war
First battle of Spanish American War
Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay:Spain owns ___. US fleet in Hong Kong under Commodore __ __. Commodore Assistant Secretary of Navy, __ __ tells Dewey to be ready for battle. 4/30/1898: enters at __. First thing in the morning, Dewey says to __ when ready. By noon, Spanish fleet is __ and not one __ soldier killed. Reinforces arrive in August and the city is __
PhilippinesGeorge DeweyTeddy RooseveltNightfiredestroyedUScaptured
Group of fighters. Led by TR. He quits and becomes colonel. Made up of cowboys, policemen, athletes, Harvard pals (bizarre mix)
Describe the conditions the 17000 US troops that left Tampa dealt with
90 degree weather, wool uniforms, little food, poor sanitation
Lawton captures town, fort, and blockhouse in SE Cuba
Rough Riders's greatest victory. bloodiest and most famous. Cuba
San Juan Hill
US navy enters __ Harbor in Cuba. Every __ ship is lost. Only 1 __ casualty. July 16, 1898: __ surrendered
Few days after Santiago surrendered, US got __ __
Ends war. States Spain gives up Cuba and the US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. US pays __ to Spain
Treaty of Paris 1898$20 million
1900: Established US would be in control of Puerto Rican governor, establishes a legislature where US picks upper house and PR picks lower house
In what year did the US grant citizenship for Puerto ricans?
1952: US makes PR a __ __ __- choose and control internal matters, US controls international matters
self governing commonwealth
Under protection of US and oversees you. What country?
US must approve all treaties Cuba signs with other nations
leased base for US from Platt Amendment
Describe the 1901 Insular Cases
US constitution doesn't apply to US territories (supposed to be temporary). American Samoa doesn't get immediate citizenship
1899: What territory does the US annex?
Revolution in Philippines: Doesn't want Philippines to be part of the US. Starts a revolution, __ US died, __ philippinos died
1901: new gov't- US sent __ to be governor of Philippines and help create constitution and legislature
1916: US put control of parts of gov't in hands of ___
When did the US give the Philippines back to the Philippinos?
July 4, 1946
European powers had a say in the economic and gov't aspects of China and control it. US is concerned that we're not involved
Spheres of Influence
400 million people and untapped resources would bring in a lot of money to __ __
All nations should be allowed to trade in China on equal terms
Open Door Policy
Creates the Open Door Policy in 1899
Secretary of State John Hay
What did Hay sell the Open Door Policy as? What actually did the US consider?
protection of Chineseown international interests
Hay said the European nations __ the Open Door Policy (they didn't) and China wasn't __
What were Chinese nationalists called and what did they lead?
Boxers - "Righteous Harmonious Fists"Boxer Rebellion
Describe the Boxer Rebellion of 1900
Foreigners were attacked. They were trapped in Peking. Western nations organize force of 20000 (US contributes 2500). Rescue foreigners and crush the boxers
Describe Hay's new Open Door Policy
Equal trade rights for all in China and guarantee Chinese Independence
Describe the results of Hay's new Open Door Policy
Europeans reject but Hay got what he wanted, the US can trade freely
Emilio Aguinaldo, Mark Twain, Rudyard Kipling
Albert Beveridge, Henry Cabot Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt
Describe Aguinaldo's Anti-imperialist views
complains about America in Philippines, Gov't expects Philippines to surrender, people have to submit & do whatever the powerful gov't wants, 2nd class citizens
Describe Twain's Anti-imperialist views
supported imperialism at first, once he saw what US did to Philippines he didn't like how US wouldn't help them, imperialism is hurting the world
Describe Kipling's Anti-imperialist views
Might as well mark the living and dead with roads and port (might bring death to the people that are there). We have to take care of the little brown people (White man's burden)
Describe Beveridge's Pro-imperialist views
god put us on earth to take over world (manifest destiny), we can teach people how to be civilized, we understand democracy the best
Describe Lodge's Pro-imperialist views
Built Nicaragua canal, as one of the great nations US cannot fall out of line, modern time is towards consolidation (power of nations), build navy to protect America and focus on PanAm
Describe Roosevelt's Pro-imperialist views
build up power within own borders, fulfill duties and don't escape responsibility, we must help Philippines and not be dictators, concerned about oceans
What was TR's Foreign Policy?
Expand US influence on the World Stage
What did TR want to do in Panama?
Create Panama Canal and take over using force
Describe the Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to Monroe Doctrine. We will be the debt collector and manage the debt. US will be the international police in the Western hemisphere (called Gunboat Diplomacy). US is the only one to interfere with Latin America, not the Europeans
Describe Big Stick Diplomacy
African proverb: "walk softly and carry a big stick". Negotiate with people peacefully and let them know we have a lot of strength behind us. Make sure they feel there's a military strain behind us
Describe the Russo-Japanese War
Arguing over China and who has control in the Pacific. Russia is losing badly and US doesn't like that Japan is winning. TR invites Russians and Japanese to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. TR wants to maintain Chinese sovereignty and negotiate peace. He wins Nobel Peace Prize
Describe the Great White Fleet
Took entire US navy fleet and sailed it all around the world (1907-1909). Showed military strength to the rest of the world
Foreign policy directed toward expanding opportunities for corporate investment overseas
Where had Taft gained valuable foreign policy experience?
Colonial administration as first governor general of the Philippines
Taft's secretary of state
Taft believed you substitute __ for bullets. Modern diplomacy is __
US wanted to buy a railroad in northern China (Manchuria). What 2 nations blocked it?
Japan and Russia
Did Knox's plan to purchase the Chinese Railroad succeed or collapse?
Where did dollar diplomacy work better? What was sent in eventually to what nation?
CaribbeanTroops and guns, Nicaragua
Describe Wilson's idea of moral diplomacy
proposed in 1912 election, secretary of state William Jennings Bryan, based foreign policy on moral principles rather than selfish materialism, felt democracy was gaining strength around the world
Describe "Cultivate the friendship and deserve the confidence of Latin America"
Just gov't relies on the consent of the governed, Latin Americans happy to hear this, Wilson said you must be a democracy too so as not ti undermine the promise of self determination
Wilson sign __ bilateral treaties which agreed to cooling off periods or outside fact finding commissions
Wilson promised __ independence and __ __ granted citizenship
Wilson starts revolutions in __ & __ __ caused Wilson to send in Marines to restore order but failed to create __ states
Us buys __ __ from their colonial power __ for $25 million
Virgin islands denmark
been in revolution since 1899
1913: mexico came under rule of General __ who imposed a bloody __ rule on the country
Most european powers just happy there is rule of __ but Wilson felt the gov't didn't reflect the wishes of the __
Wilson's stance encouraged __ __ __ in Northern Mexico, like __ __
Anti-Huerta forcesVenustiano Carranza
Describe the Tampico Incident
US sailors are arrested for going into a prohibited area (April 1914). US moves in and occupies the port city. Weakens Huerta, starts civil war, maybe war with US
wilson does/doesn't want to start war with mexico
Three ABC powers: mediate to find a peaceful solution, US navy __ its forces. Huerta cedes control to __. __ __ wants to provoke war
argentina, brazil, chilewithdrawsCarranzaPancho Villa
wilson likes __ better, probably worst __ __ mistake
__ forces drive __ into the northern hills of Mexico
US decides to __ __ and recognize __ govt. __ is angry because US wouldn't help. __ attacks train in Northern Mexico, kills 17 __ __
back offCarranzaVillaVIllaAmerican citizens
__ invades US (New Mexico) on March 9, 1916, several americans killed
Wilson responds by sending __ __. 7000 troops sent to Mexico to get __
Doesn't get __ but there's a confrontation between Pershing and __ forces