Chapter 17 America Enters the World Stage Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 America Enters the World Stage Deck (108):
1

Describe US isolationism

Monroe Doctrine rules us - keep Europe out, protect South America

2

Describe Frederick Jackson Turner

Manifest destiny, fight slavery. american frontier was closed; must re-identify ourselves. now we can look outside our borders

3

Way-station for sailors traveling to different islands in the middle

Midway Islands (1867)

4

July 8, 1853: Commodore Mathew Perry travels there, US fleet goes there. Opens their ports and starts trading

Japan

5

Describe Alfred Mahan's, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)

Need to focus money and attention on navy; control the seas

6

Our role now is to spread Christianity to make the world better. Civilize people into democracy, need to take care of people and make them better

Josiah Strong

7

The energetic, strong, and fit should rule. God made them healthy. Going to try to make everyone else strong and healthy

Social Darwinism

8

Purchased in March 1867. Secretary of State: __ __ ; president __. $7.2 million (2 cents an acre, double size of Texas)- owned by Russians. Milk joke (get ice cream)

AlaskaWilliam SewardJohnson

9

Nicknames for Alaska

Seward's Folly, Frigida, President Andrew Johnson's Polar Bear Garden

10

What did the US get out of Alaska?

Lumber, coal, copper, oil, natural gas

11

Archipelago (many different islands) 2000 miles SW of San Francisco. Late 1700s- Missionaries. 1840: King Kamehameha III wrote constitution based on US constitution

Hawaii

12

Hawaii's biggest export

Sugar

13

Raised tariff on sugar

McKinley Tariff of 1890

14

"Hawaii for Hawaiians", protectorate of the US

Queen Liliukalani

15

Why did they want a revolution?

to dethrone Queen

16

What was under the protection of the US after the revolution and who was the new Revolutionary president?

HawaiiSanford B Dole

17

First time North and South America had come together. Talk about trade and how to keep Europe out. Nothing came out of it

Pan-American Conference (1889)

18

Civil War- "Yanquis" supported the President. Drunken sailors from the USS Baltimore leave a bar

Chilean Crisis (1891-1892)

19

Crisis: where's the boundary b/w __ and __ __ __. President Cleveland sends Secretary of State __ __ to arbitrate. Said Monroe Doctrine applies to this, __ cheers this

Venezuela, British New GuineaRichard OlneyCaracas

20

Describe Results of Venezuela dispute

An independent arbitrator gave Britain most what it wanted but Europe and Latin America are on notice that the US is the most important nation in the Western Hemisphere

21

US seen as a protector of __ __ from Europe

South America

22

What is the nickname of the Spanish American War (1898)?

"A splendid little War"

23

"Ever faithful isle"

Cuba

24

Mainstay of Cuban economy is __ __. US puts heavy duties on __ and it hurts the economy

raw sugarsugar

25

Guerrilla warfare, block railroads

Cubans Rebellion

26

Poet. Toured US and when he returned to Cuba, he was killed in a few days

Jose Marti

27

Spain ruthlessly puts down the rebellion. Governor __ __ __ "The Butcher". ___: 500000 farmers, no longer rebel

General Valeriano WeyerReconcentrados

28

Why did the governor target farmers?

1) Cut off food supply of rebels2) Everyone out of camps can be considered rebels3) Over 200,000 die

29

Why did the US gov't send ship? What happened on 2/15/1898?

Investigate situation in CubaUSS Maine blows up

30

"Remember the Maine". 266 out of __ men on board were killed. What caused the Maine to explode from US and Spain? What are the thoughts now?

350US: Spain did itSpain: Mechanical ErrorNow: Mechanical error

31

Newspapers that have sensational headlines and pictures

Yellow journalism

32

Competed against each other with yellow journalism. What are the names of their newspapers?

W R Hearst: New York JournalJ Pulitzer: New York World

33

One of his pictures entitled Spain to strip searches of American women. Sent by __ to get pics of the Cuban Rebellion

Frederic RemingtonHearst

34

Describe what Remington told Hearst, and Hearst's response

R: said there's no war and wants to go homeH: give me the pictures, I'll make up the war

35

__ asks Congress for a declaration of war

McKinley

36

Congress adds the __. States US has no intention of taking Cuba for itself, wants to free the Cubans. War approved, America goes to war

Teller Amendment

37

First battle of Spanish American War

Battle of Manila Bay

38

Battle of Manila Bay:Spain owns ___. US fleet in Hong Kong under Commodore __ __. Commodore Assistant Secretary of Navy, __ __ tells Dewey to be ready for battle. 4/30/1898: enters at __. First thing in the morning, Dewey says to __ when ready. By noon, Spanish fleet is __ and not one __ soldier killed. Reinforces arrive in August and the city is __

PhilippinesGeorge DeweyTeddy RooseveltNightfiredestroyedUScaptured

39

Group of fighters. Led by TR. He quits and becomes colonel. Made up of cowboys, policemen, athletes, Harvard pals (bizarre mix)

Rough Riders

40

Describe the conditions the 17000 US troops that left Tampa dealt with

90 degree weather, wool uniforms, little food, poor sanitation

41

Lawton captures town, fort, and blockhouse in SE Cuba

El Caney

42

Rough Riders's greatest victory. bloodiest and most famous. Cuba

San Juan Hill

43

US navy enters __ Harbor in Cuba. Every __ ship is lost. Only 1 __ casualty. July 16, 1898: __ surrendered

SantiagoSpanishUSSantiago

44

Few days after Santiago surrendered, US got __ __

Puerto Rico

45

Ends war. States Spain gives up Cuba and the US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. US pays __ to Spain

Treaty of Paris 1898$20 million

46

1900: Established US would be in control of Puerto Rican governor, establishes a legislature where US picks upper house and PR picks lower house

Foraker Act

47

In what year did the US grant citizenship for Puerto ricans?

1917

48

1952: US makes PR a __ __ __- choose and control internal matters, US controls international matters

self governing commonwealth

49

Under protection of US and oversees you. What country?

ProtectorateCuba

50

US must approve all treaties Cuba signs with other nations

Platt Amendment

51

leased base for US from Platt Amendment

Guantanamo Bay

52

Describe the 1901 Insular Cases

US constitution doesn't apply to US territories (supposed to be temporary). American Samoa doesn't get immediate citizenship

53

1899: What territory does the US annex?

Philippines

54

Revolution in Philippines: Doesn't want Philippines to be part of the US. Starts a revolution, __ US died, __ philippinos died

Emilio Aguinaldo4,000200,000

55

1901: new gov't- US sent __ to be governor of Philippines and help create constitution and legislature

Taft

56

1916: US put control of parts of gov't in hands of ___

Phillipinnes

57

When did the US give the Philippines back to the Philippinos?

July 4, 1946

58

European powers had a say in the economic and gov't aspects of China and control it. US is concerned that we're not involved

Spheres of Influence

59

400 million people and untapped resources would bring in a lot of money to __ __

European Nations

60

All nations should be allowed to trade in China on equal terms

Open Door Policy

61

Creates the Open Door Policy in 1899

Secretary of State John Hay

62

What did Hay sell the Open Door Policy as? What actually did the US consider?

protection of Chineseown international interests

63

Hay said the European nations __ the Open Door Policy (they didn't) and China wasn't __

acceptedconsulted

64

What were Chinese nationalists called and what did they lead?

Boxers - "Righteous Harmonious Fists"Boxer Rebellion

65

Describe the Boxer Rebellion of 1900

Foreigners were attacked. They were trapped in Peking. Western nations organize force of 20000 (US contributes 2500). Rescue foreigners and crush the boxers

66

Describe Hay's new Open Door Policy

Equal trade rights for all in China and guarantee Chinese Independence

67

Describe the results of Hay's new Open Door Policy

Europeans reject but Hay got what he wanted, the US can trade freely

68

Three Anti-Imperialists

Emilio Aguinaldo, Mark Twain, Rudyard Kipling

69

Three Pro-Imperialists

Albert Beveridge, Henry Cabot Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt

70

Describe Aguinaldo's Anti-imperialist views

complains about America in Philippines, Gov't expects Philippines to surrender, people have to submit & do whatever the powerful gov't wants, 2nd class citizens

71

Describe Twain's Anti-imperialist views

supported imperialism at first, once he saw what US did to Philippines he didn't like how US wouldn't help them, imperialism is hurting the world

72

Describe Kipling's Anti-imperialist views

Might as well mark the living and dead with roads and port (might bring death to the people that are there). We have to take care of the little brown people (White man's burden)

73

Describe Beveridge's Pro-imperialist views

god put us on earth to take over world (manifest destiny), we can teach people how to be civilized, we understand democracy the best

74

Describe Lodge's Pro-imperialist views

Built Nicaragua canal, as one of the great nations US cannot fall out of line, modern time is towards consolidation (power of nations), build navy to protect America and focus on PanAm

75

Describe Roosevelt's Pro-imperialist views

build up power within own borders, fulfill duties and don't escape responsibility, we must help Philippines and not be dictators, concerned about oceans

76

What was TR's Foreign Policy?

Expand US influence on the World Stage

77

What did TR want to do in Panama?

Create Panama Canal and take over using force

78

Describe the Roosevelt Corollary

Addition to Monroe Doctrine. We will be the debt collector and manage the debt. US will be the international police in the Western hemisphere (called Gunboat Diplomacy). US is the only one to interfere with Latin America, not the Europeans

79

Describe Big Stick Diplomacy

African proverb: "walk softly and carry a big stick". Negotiate with people peacefully and let them know we have a lot of strength behind us. Make sure they feel there's a military strain behind us

80

Describe the Russo-Japanese War

Arguing over China and who has control in the Pacific. Russia is losing badly and US doesn't like that Japan is winning. TR invites Russians and Japanese to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. TR wants to maintain Chinese sovereignty and negotiate peace. He wins Nobel Peace Prize

81

Describe the Great White Fleet

Took entire US navy fleet and sailed it all around the world (1907-1909). Showed military strength to the rest of the world

82

Foreign policy directed toward expanding opportunities for corporate investment overseas

Dollar Diplomacy

83

Where had Taft gained valuable foreign policy experience?

Colonial administration as first governor general of the Philippines

84

Taft's secretary of state

Philander Knox

85

Taft believed you substitute __ for bullets. Modern diplomacy is __

dollarscommercial

86

US wanted to buy a railroad in northern China (Manchuria). What 2 nations blocked it?

Japan and Russia

87

Did Knox's plan to purchase the Chinese Railroad succeed or collapse?

collapse

88

Where did dollar diplomacy work better? What was sent in eventually to what nation?

CaribbeanTroops and guns, Nicaragua

89

Describe Wilson's idea of moral diplomacy

proposed in 1912 election, secretary of state William Jennings Bryan, based foreign policy on moral principles rather than selfish materialism, felt democracy was gaining strength around the world

90

Describe "Cultivate the friendship and deserve the confidence of Latin America"

Just gov't relies on the consent of the governed, Latin Americans happy to hear this, Wilson said you must be a democracy too so as not ti undermine the promise of self determination

91

Wilson sign __ bilateral treaties which agreed to cooling off periods or outside fact finding commissions

22

92

Wilson promised __ independence and __ __ granted citizenship

PhilippinesPuerto Rico

93

Wilson starts revolutions in __ & __ __ caused Wilson to send in Marines to restore order but failed to create __ states

HaitiDominican RepublicDemocratic

94

Us buys __ __ from their colonial power __ for $25 million

Virgin islands denmark

95

been in revolution since 1899

mexico

96

1913: mexico came under rule of General __ who imposed a bloody __ rule on the country

Huertaauthoritarian

97

Most european powers just happy there is rule of __ but Wilson felt the gov't didn't reflect the wishes of the __

lawpeople

98

Wilson's stance encouraged __ __ __ in Northern Mexico, like __ __

Anti-Huerta forcesVenustiano Carranza

99

Describe the Tampico Incident

US sailors are arrested for going into a prohibited area (April 1914). US moves in and occupies the port city. Weakens Huerta, starts civil war, maybe war with US

100

wilson does/doesn't want to start war with mexico

doesn't

101

Three ABC powers: mediate to find a peaceful solution, US navy __ its forces. Huerta cedes control to __. __ __ wants to provoke war

argentina, brazil, chilewithdrawsCarranzaPancho Villa

102

wilson likes __ better, probably worst __ __ mistake

VillaForeign policy

103

__ forces drive __ into the northern hills of Mexico

CarranzaVilla

104

US decides to __ __ and recognize __ govt. __ is angry because US wouldn't help. __ attacks train in Northern Mexico, kills 17 __ __

back offCarranzaVillaVIllaAmerican citizens

105

__ invades US (New Mexico) on March 9, 1916, several americans killed

Villa

106

Wilson responds by sending __ __. 7000 troops sent to Mexico to get __

John PershingVilla

107

Doesn't get __ but there's a confrontation between Pershing and __ forces

VillaCarranza

108

Men killed on each __, several Americans __, Wilson fears war so he __ US troops

sidecapturedwithdraws