Chapter 16 Progressivism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Progressivism Deck (76):

Define progressivism

a reform movement


Describe in detail what progressivism is

1) Common desire among a large group of people that have the desire to improve life in the industrial age 2) Make political change & social improvements through gov't action 3) Believes gov't should address problems of industrial age & make it better 4) During 1901-1918 5) Presidents- 1901-1909: Theodore Roosevelt, 1909-1913- William Taft, 1913-1918- Woodrow Wilson


Who were progressives?

Took civil responsibility seriously, urban, white, middle class, had more leisure time


Progressive Democratic LeadersProgressive Republican Leaders

Democrats: William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow WilsonRepublicans: Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette


Progressivism Philosophy

Missionary spirit- seek truth and light, improve people. Honest gov't, just laws, challenge fixed ideas. Laws that were good for everyone, not just rich. Try something new


Describe Pragmatism

Simple effective way to improve (practical approach). William James- education. John Dewey- effective freedom


Describe Margaret Sanger

Born in 1879 in Corning NY. Mother had 18 pregnancies with 11 live births. She witnessed he mother's slow death. Only rich had access to "French" things. Must empower women and give women power.


What did Margaret Sanger do?

She wanted women centered forms of birth control and put info into women's hands. Wrote "What Every Girl Should Know". Want knowledge of rich for all women. Sentenced to jail for breaking the law (obscenity). Post office would not mail information


What did Margaret Sanger found? What did she organize?

Founded American Birth Control League (becomes Planned Parenthood). Organized first international population conference to see how to sustain amount of people living and being born


Describe Immigration

Ellis Island: rural, southern/eastern European. Angel Island: Chinese. Came for economic opportunities, freedom, wars in home countries. They all wanted a better life


What did the Slavic priest say about his people?

They are not in America, they are under it


Define urbanization

the rise of cities


Describe urbanization

1910- NYC has more people than 33 states. Lower east side was more densely populated than Bombay or Calcutta, India. Began to attract new writers, painters, photographers, youth. Germans were largest group who came in the 1830s to tenements. Roosevelt created Home Relief program which gave food


Crowded apartments, poor living condition



Describe Frederick Taylor's impact on labor

"Scientific Management": how to maximize profits by increasing worker productivity


Describe the role of the worker

obey detailed instructions of supervisors


Describe the reaction to labor

"industrial Freedom" & "Industrial Democracy". Became struggle between Progressivism & rise of monopolies


Describe Samuel Gompers

Head of American Federation of Labor. Negotiated for higher wages & better working conditions. Self-reliance vs gov't responsibility


Describe Upton Sinclair

Wants people to get angry over working conditions. Instead of passing laws to protect people they want to create laws for food. Published "The Jungle" which talked about the meat packing industry


What did people want to read about?

Underhanded schemes in politics, how businesses operate, food, famous people, scandal. things haven't changed today


What is a muckraker?

Journalist who exposed corruption in business and politics. Wrote in-depth investigative stories. Felt unless people got angry, they wouldn't fight for change.


How did muckrakers get their name?

Teddy Roosevelt's speech, from Pilgrim's Progress by James Bunion


Describe H.D. Lloyd's writing

1881: Standard Oil (Rockefeller). 1894: Wealth against the common wealth. He exposed the problems and laid the groundwork. He didn't offer solutions to problems.


Describe McClure's Magazine (1893)

Most important. Founded by Sam McClure (Irish immigrant). Want to make sure stories were good and got it right. Hired journalists to write long exposes. Created atmosphere at work to seek good story. Muckraking tradition


Describe Lincoln Steffens

1902- Tweed Day in St.Louis. Highlighted how party bosses & political leaders profited from political corruption. Wrote Shame of the Cities which investigated corruption in American cities


Describe Ida Tarbell

6 years at Standard Oil undercover. 1904- History of Standard Oil Company. Expose arrogance and economic machinations of the company (corporate greed). TR felt it was the most substantial


Describe Jacob Riis

1890. Photo journalist who photographed the tenements of NY, also working children & conditions in sweatshops


Describe Theodore Dreiser

Wrote The Financier and its sequel The Titan. Considered the greatest of all business novels. Depicts the terrible costs of the attempt to live above and beyond society's rules. Looks at greed and ruthlessness


Describe "Sister Carrie" by Dreiser

1900: which addressed the American Dream. About a young girl from Wisconsin goes to Chicago to fulfill her dreams. Unsentimental depiction of big-city life. Becomes mistress of different men


Describe "The Jungle"

Upton Sinclair- 1906 (1904 newspapers). Graphic details of the lives of stockyard workers and their operations. Will lead to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). TR: "The Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery", Calls Sinclair a crackpot but agreed with most of his conclusions


After 1910 muckraking declines because of 3 things:

1) Writer pressure: hard to top the sensationalism of the previous story 2) Economic pressures: Lots of publications added to the market, banks & advertisers put pressure to tone down treatment of corporations, losing their funding 3) Corporate Image: companies develop a new field called public relations


Describe the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt

President from 1901-1909, from NY, Republican Party. 2/14/1884: wife Alice and mother died, 1886: Marries Edith. After McKinley's assassination in 1901, TR became president (youngest president)


Describe the Bully Pulpit

As president, TR speaks for the nation, define national problems and solutions


Describe the Square Deal

Work for the people's needs. Do what is fair and right for everyone- Business and Labor. Change rules so everyone can do well


Describe Trust Busting

1st president to enforce Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Attacked Northern Securities Combination (JP Morgan's) and won. Filed more than 40 suits. He broke up very large trusts


Describe difference between Good and Bad Trusts

Good: through low prices & efficiency dominated the market. Bad: harmed public & stifled competition (combination)


Describe Increase Federal Power

Filled continent, built industrial empire. As a nation we need to develop orderly tools


Describe Coal Strike of 1902

Workers stuck in winter, take them to White House, owners refuse, threaten, commission appointed by White House, resolution was 10% pay hike and 9 hour workday


Describe Consumer Protection

Pure Food and Drug Act 1906: no drugs in foodMeat Inspection Act 1906: make sure nothing else is in meat


Describe TR's Transportation reform

Put teeth in Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Wanted to make sure there was a flow of goods around the US. Elkins Act 1903: set price to charge. Hepburn Act 1906: look at rebates for railroads


Describe TR's conservation reform

Loved wilderness & outdoor life (keep forests forever). Champion conservationist. Forest Reserve Act (done in 1891 but he used it). Newlands Reclamation Act 1902: provide irrigation for dry lands. National Conservation Commission. Gifford Pinchot: 1st director of US Forest Service


Describe TR's elections

1904: TR beat Alton Parkey. 1908: "Under no circumstances will I be a candidate or accept another nomination" (regrets this later). 1912: runs again, loses. 1919: TR dies


Describe William Howard Taft's Presidency

Republican from Ohio, president from 1909-1913. Went to Yale. 1904-1908: Secretary of War


Describe Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909

Progressive Republicans & Democrats said it didn't depart enough from past conservative Republican policies. Lowers tariff but not enough


Describe Mann-Elkins Act 1910

Extended authority of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Telephone and Telegraph under supervision of ICC. Makes progressive republicans happy


Describe Antitrust Policy

Enforced Antitrust laws. Broke up Standard Oil and American Tobacco Company. Broke up US Steel (which TR felt was a good trust & approved it)


Describe how Taft continued Conservation Policies

Bureau of Mines. Added large tracts of Appalachian land to federal reserve. Set aside federal oil land (1st)


Describe the Webb-Kenyon Interstate Liquor Shipments Act (1913)

Can't transport alcohol through dry states. He vetoed it but it was overturned (showed weakness)


What new states were added during Taft's presidency?

New Mexico and Arizona in 1912. 1st president of 48 contiguous states


What two parts did he separate into 2 different cabinet positions?

Commerce and Labor


What did the 16th amendment do?

Income Tax


What did Taft do in regards to conservation?

Fired Pinchot. Richard Ballinger- secretary of the interior. Ballinger opened up public land in Alaska for private development. Shows division between Progressives and Conservatives in party


Who did Taft believe didn't represent them?

Conservative House Speaker Joseph Cannon


In midterm election of 1910, who'd he support?

Conservative candidates


Who was critical of Taft? In response, how did it affect Taft?

Roosevelt. His weight balloons b/c he's depressed from criticism. Election of 1912- loses. Taft becomes Chief Justice of Supreme court from 1921-1930. Died 3/8/1930 in sleep; first presidential funeral on radio


What did progressives want to do to voter participation?

increase it


1881- Massachusetts secret ballot with record of who voted but not who you voted for

Australian Ballot


Used to be done in convention. R LaFollette of Wisconsin use majority (helps narrow down candidates) people have a say in the vote

Direct Primaries


Done from the beginning: state legislature picks senators. The millionaire's club. 1st state: Nevada 1899. 1913: 17th amendment

Direct election of senators


compel legislature to consider a bill by the people



allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on a ballot



enable voters to remove corrupt or unsatisfactory politicians from office by a majority of votes before the official's term expired



What did Municipal reform aim to do?

target city bosses and political machines


Describe Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones

Toledo, Ohio. Self-made millionaire. Comprehensive reforms: Free kindergarten, night school, public playgrounds


Voters elect heads of city departments (fire, police, sanitation)



Hired by city council to direct the work of various departments. 1923- 300 cities adopted them

City Managers


Describe public utilities

Take utilities out of the hands of private companies to break power of city bosses. By 1915, 2/3 of cities owned their own water systems


Describe C.E. Hughs state reforms

Governor from NY. Went after fraudulent insurance companies


Describe H Johnson state reforms

fought against economic and political power of Southern Pacific Railroad


Describe R LaFollette state reforms

"laboratory of democracy". Wisconsin idea: instituted series of progressive reforms that included a direct primary law, tax reform, tax corporate wealth, and regulation of railroad rates


Election of 1912: Republican Party

Contentious Convention. TR wants the nomination. Taft wins nomination. Runs on his accomplishments


Election of 1912: Bull Moose Party

TR establishes the Progressive party (nicknamed Bull Moose Party). TR "strong as a bull moose". New nationalism: more gov't regulation, more unions, women's suffrage, more direct democracy, end child labor, conservation


TR assassination attempt

stuff in pockets stopped the bullet. finishes speech before he sees the doctor


Election of 1912: Democratic Party

NJ governor Woodrow Wilson. New Freedom (concentration of good power in order to dismantle trusts). Limit big business & big gov't, end corruption, revive competition by supporting small businesses, do not regulate trusts: break them up


Election of 1912: Socialist Party

Eugene Debs. Dedicated to welfare of working poor. Ran for president 6 times. Outspoken critic for business. Wanted public ownership of utilities. 8 hour workday, pensions for employer. This election is the Socialist Party at its peak- 6% of vote (900,000 votes)


Election of 1912: Results

Woodrow Wilson: Winner, 435 electoral votesTheodore Roosevelt: 88 electoral votesWilliam Howard Taft: 8 electoral votesEugene Debs: 0 electoral votes