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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Progressivism Deck (76)
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Define progressivism

a reform movement


Describe in detail what progressivism is

1) Common desire among a large group of people that have the desire to improve life in the industrial age 2) Make political change & social improvements through gov't action 3) Believes gov't should address problems of industrial age & make it better 4) During 1901-1918 5) Presidents- 1901-1909: Theodore Roosevelt, 1909-1913- William Taft, 1913-1918- Woodrow Wilson


Who were progressives?

Took civil responsibility seriously, urban, white, middle class, had more leisure time


Progressive Democratic LeadersProgressive Republican Leaders

Democrats: William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow WilsonRepublicans: Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette


Progressivism Philosophy

Missionary spirit- seek truth and light, improve people. Honest gov't, just laws, challenge fixed ideas. Laws that were good for everyone, not just rich. Try something new


Describe Pragmatism

Simple effective way to improve (practical approach). William James- education. John Dewey- effective freedom


Describe Margaret Sanger

Born in 1879 in Corning NY. Mother had 18 pregnancies with 11 live births. She witnessed he mother's slow death. Only rich had access to "French" things. Must empower women and give women power.


What did Margaret Sanger do?

She wanted women centered forms of birth control and put info into women's hands. Wrote "What Every Girl Should Know". Want knowledge of rich for all women. Sentenced to jail for breaking the law (obscenity). Post office would not mail information


What did Margaret Sanger found? What did she organize?

Founded American Birth Control League (becomes Planned Parenthood). Organized first international population conference to see how to sustain amount of people living and being born


Describe Immigration

Ellis Island: rural, southern/eastern European. Angel Island: Chinese. Came for economic opportunities, freedom, wars in home countries. They all wanted a better life


What did the Slavic priest say about his people?

They are not in America, they are under it


Define urbanization

the rise of cities


Describe urbanization

1910- NYC has more people than 33 states. Lower east side was more densely populated than Bombay or Calcutta, India. Began to attract new writers, painters, photographers, youth. Germans were largest group who came in the 1830s to tenements. Roosevelt created Home Relief program which gave food


Crowded apartments, poor living condition



Describe Frederick Taylor's impact on labor

"Scientific Management": how to maximize profits by increasing worker productivity


Describe the role of the worker

obey detailed instructions of supervisors


Describe the reaction to labor

"industrial Freedom" & "Industrial Democracy". Became struggle between Progressivism & rise of monopolies


Describe Samuel Gompers

Head of American Federation of Labor. Negotiated for higher wages & better working conditions. Self-reliance vs gov't responsibility


Describe Upton Sinclair

Wants people to get angry over working conditions. Instead of passing laws to protect people they want to create laws for food. Published "The Jungle" which talked about the meat packing industry


What did people want to read about?

Underhanded schemes in politics, how businesses operate, food, famous people, scandal. things haven't changed today


What is a muckraker?

Journalist who exposed corruption in business and politics. Wrote in-depth investigative stories. Felt unless people got angry, they wouldn't fight for change.


How did muckrakers get their name?

Teddy Roosevelt's speech, from Pilgrim's Progress by James Bunion


Describe H.D. Lloyd's writing

1881: Standard Oil (Rockefeller). 1894: Wealth against the common wealth. He exposed the problems and laid the groundwork. He didn't offer solutions to problems.


Describe McClure's Magazine (1893)

Most important. Founded by Sam McClure (Irish immigrant). Want to make sure stories were good and got it right. Hired journalists to write long exposes. Created atmosphere at work to seek good story. Muckraking tradition


Describe Lincoln Steffens

1902- Tweed Day in St.Louis. Highlighted how party bosses & political leaders profited from political corruption. Wrote Shame of the Cities which investigated corruption in American cities


Describe Ida Tarbell

6 years at Standard Oil undercover. 1904- History of Standard Oil Company. Expose arrogance and economic machinations of the company (corporate greed). TR felt it was the most substantial


Describe Jacob Riis

1890. Photo journalist who photographed the tenements of NY, also working children & conditions in sweatshops


Describe Theodore Dreiser

Wrote The Financier and its sequel The Titan. Considered the greatest of all business novels. Depicts the terrible costs of the attempt to live above and beyond society's rules. Looks at greed and ruthlessness


Describe "Sister Carrie" by Dreiser

1900: which addressed the American Dream. About a young girl from Wisconsin goes to Chicago to fulfill her dreams. Unsentimental depiction of big-city life. Becomes mistress of different men


Describe "The Jungle"

Upton Sinclair- 1906 (1904 newspapers). Graphic details of the lives of stockyard workers and their operations. Will lead to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). TR: "The Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery", Calls Sinclair a crackpot but agreed with most of his conclusions