Flashcards in Chapter 16 Progressivism Deck (76)
a reform movement
Describe in detail what progressivism is
1) Common desire among a large group of people that have the desire to improve life in the industrial age 2) Make political change & social improvements through gov't action 3) Believes gov't should address problems of industrial age & make it better 4) During 1901-1918 5) Presidents- 1901-1909: Theodore Roosevelt, 1909-1913- William Taft, 1913-1918- Woodrow Wilson
Who were progressives?
Took civil responsibility seriously, urban, white, middle class, had more leisure time
Progressive Democratic LeadersProgressive Republican Leaders
Democrats: William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow WilsonRepublicans: Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette
Missionary spirit- seek truth and light, improve people. Honest gov't, just laws, challenge fixed ideas. Laws that were good for everyone, not just rich. Try something new
Simple effective way to improve (practical approach). William James- education. John Dewey- effective freedom
Describe Margaret Sanger
Born in 1879 in Corning NY. Mother had 18 pregnancies with 11 live births. She witnessed he mother's slow death. Only rich had access to "French" things. Must empower women and give women power.
What did Margaret Sanger do?
She wanted women centered forms of birth control and put info into women's hands. Wrote "What Every Girl Should Know". Want knowledge of rich for all women. Sentenced to jail for breaking the law (obscenity). Post office would not mail information
What did Margaret Sanger found? What did she organize?
Founded American Birth Control League (becomes Planned Parenthood). Organized first international population conference to see how to sustain amount of people living and being born
Ellis Island: rural, southern/eastern European. Angel Island: Chinese. Came for economic opportunities, freedom, wars in home countries. They all wanted a better life
What did the Slavic priest say about his people?
They are not in America, they are under it
the rise of cities
1910- NYC has more people than 33 states. Lower east side was more densely populated than Bombay or Calcutta, India. Began to attract new writers, painters, photographers, youth. Germans were largest group who came in the 1830s to tenements. Roosevelt created Home Relief program which gave food
Crowded apartments, poor living condition
Describe Frederick Taylor's impact on labor
"Scientific Management": how to maximize profits by increasing worker productivity
Describe the role of the worker
obey detailed instructions of supervisors
Describe the reaction to labor
"industrial Freedom" & "Industrial Democracy". Became struggle between Progressivism & rise of monopolies
Describe Samuel Gompers
Head of American Federation of Labor. Negotiated for higher wages & better working conditions. Self-reliance vs gov't responsibility
Describe Upton Sinclair
Wants people to get angry over working conditions. Instead of passing laws to protect people they want to create laws for food. Published "The Jungle" which talked about the meat packing industry
What did people want to read about?
Underhanded schemes in politics, how businesses operate, food, famous people, scandal. things haven't changed today
What is a muckraker?
Journalist who exposed corruption in business and politics. Wrote in-depth investigative stories. Felt unless people got angry, they wouldn't fight for change.
How did muckrakers get their name?
Teddy Roosevelt's speech, from Pilgrim's Progress by James Bunion
Describe H.D. Lloyd's writing
1881: Standard Oil (Rockefeller). 1894: Wealth against the common wealth. He exposed the problems and laid the groundwork. He didn't offer solutions to problems.
Describe McClure's Magazine (1893)
Most important. Founded by Sam McClure (Irish immigrant). Want to make sure stories were good and got it right. Hired journalists to write long exposes. Created atmosphere at work to seek good story. Muckraking tradition
Describe Lincoln Steffens
1902- Tweed Day in St.Louis. Highlighted how party bosses & political leaders profited from political corruption. Wrote Shame of the Cities which investigated corruption in American cities
Describe Ida Tarbell
6 years at Standard Oil undercover. 1904- History of Standard Oil Company. Expose arrogance and economic machinations of the company (corporate greed). TR felt it was the most substantial
Describe Jacob Riis
1890. Photo journalist who photographed the tenements of NY, also working children & conditions in sweatshops
Describe Theodore Dreiser
Wrote The Financier and its sequel The Titan. Considered the greatest of all business novels. Depicts the terrible costs of the attempt to live above and beyond society's rules. Looks at greed and ruthlessness
Describe "Sister Carrie" by Dreiser
1900: which addressed the American Dream. About a young girl from Wisconsin goes to Chicago to fulfill her dreams. Unsentimental depiction of big-city life. Becomes mistress of different men