Flashcards in Chapter 16 Progressivism Deck (76):
a reform movement
Describe in detail what progressivism is
1) Common desire among a large group of people that have the desire to improve life in the industrial age 2) Make political change & social improvements through gov't action 3) Believes gov't should address problems of industrial age & make it better 4) During 1901-1918 5) Presidents- 1901-1909: Theodore Roosevelt, 1909-1913- William Taft, 1913-1918- Woodrow Wilson
Who were progressives?
Took civil responsibility seriously, urban, white, middle class, had more leisure time
Progressive Democratic LeadersProgressive Republican Leaders
Democrats: William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow WilsonRepublicans: Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette
Missionary spirit- seek truth and light, improve people. Honest gov't, just laws, challenge fixed ideas. Laws that were good for everyone, not just rich. Try something new
Simple effective way to improve (practical approach). William James- education. John Dewey- effective freedom
Describe Margaret Sanger
Born in 1879 in Corning NY. Mother had 18 pregnancies with 11 live births. She witnessed he mother's slow death. Only rich had access to "French" things. Must empower women and give women power.
What did Margaret Sanger do?
She wanted women centered forms of birth control and put info into women's hands. Wrote "What Every Girl Should Know". Want knowledge of rich for all women. Sentenced to jail for breaking the law (obscenity). Post office would not mail information
What did Margaret Sanger found? What did she organize?
Founded American Birth Control League (becomes Planned Parenthood). Organized first international population conference to see how to sustain amount of people living and being born
Ellis Island: rural, southern/eastern European. Angel Island: Chinese. Came for economic opportunities, freedom, wars in home countries. They all wanted a better life
What did the Slavic priest say about his people?
They are not in America, they are under it
the rise of cities
1910- NYC has more people than 33 states. Lower east side was more densely populated than Bombay or Calcutta, India. Began to attract new writers, painters, photographers, youth. Germans were largest group who came in the 1830s to tenements. Roosevelt created Home Relief program which gave food
Crowded apartments, poor living condition
Describe Frederick Taylor's impact on labor
"Scientific Management": how to maximize profits by increasing worker productivity
Describe the role of the worker
obey detailed instructions of supervisors
Describe the reaction to labor
"industrial Freedom" & "Industrial Democracy". Became struggle between Progressivism & rise of monopolies
Describe Samuel Gompers
Head of American Federation of Labor. Negotiated for higher wages & better working conditions. Self-reliance vs gov't responsibility
Describe Upton Sinclair
Wants people to get angry over working conditions. Instead of passing laws to protect people they want to create laws for food. Published "The Jungle" which talked about the meat packing industry
What did people want to read about?
Underhanded schemes in politics, how businesses operate, food, famous people, scandal. things haven't changed today
What is a muckraker?
Journalist who exposed corruption in business and politics. Wrote in-depth investigative stories. Felt unless people got angry, they wouldn't fight for change.
How did muckrakers get their name?
Teddy Roosevelt's speech, from Pilgrim's Progress by James Bunion
Describe H.D. Lloyd's writing
1881: Standard Oil (Rockefeller). 1894: Wealth against the common wealth. He exposed the problems and laid the groundwork. He didn't offer solutions to problems.
Describe McClure's Magazine (1893)
Most important. Founded by Sam McClure (Irish immigrant). Want to make sure stories were good and got it right. Hired journalists to write long exposes. Created atmosphere at work to seek good story. Muckraking tradition
Describe Lincoln Steffens
1902- Tweed Day in St.Louis. Highlighted how party bosses & political leaders profited from political corruption. Wrote Shame of the Cities which investigated corruption in American cities
Describe Ida Tarbell
6 years at Standard Oil undercover. 1904- History of Standard Oil Company. Expose arrogance and economic machinations of the company (corporate greed). TR felt it was the most substantial
Describe Jacob Riis
1890. Photo journalist who photographed the tenements of NY, also working children & conditions in sweatshops
Describe Theodore Dreiser
Wrote The Financier and its sequel The Titan. Considered the greatest of all business novels. Depicts the terrible costs of the attempt to live above and beyond society's rules. Looks at greed and ruthlessness
Describe "Sister Carrie" by Dreiser
1900: which addressed the American Dream. About a young girl from Wisconsin goes to Chicago to fulfill her dreams. Unsentimental depiction of big-city life. Becomes mistress of different men
Describe "The Jungle"
Upton Sinclair- 1906 (1904 newspapers). Graphic details of the lives of stockyard workers and their operations. Will lead to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). TR: "The Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery", Calls Sinclair a crackpot but agreed with most of his conclusions
After 1910 muckraking declines because of 3 things:
1) Writer pressure: hard to top the sensationalism of the previous story 2) Economic pressures: Lots of publications added to the market, banks & advertisers put pressure to tone down treatment of corporations, losing their funding 3) Corporate Image: companies develop a new field called public relations
Describe the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt
President from 1901-1909, from NY, Republican Party. 2/14/1884: wife Alice and mother died, 1886: Marries Edith. After McKinley's assassination in 1901, TR became president (youngest president)
Describe the Bully Pulpit
As president, TR speaks for the nation, define national problems and solutions
Describe the Square Deal
Work for the people's needs. Do what is fair and right for everyone- Business and Labor. Change rules so everyone can do well
Describe Trust Busting
1st president to enforce Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Attacked Northern Securities Combination (JP Morgan's) and won. Filed more than 40 suits. He broke up very large trusts
Describe difference between Good and Bad Trusts
Good: through low prices & efficiency dominated the market. Bad: harmed public & stifled competition (combination)
Describe Increase Federal Power
Filled continent, built industrial empire. As a nation we need to develop orderly tools
Describe Coal Strike of 1902
Workers stuck in winter, take them to White House, owners refuse, threaten, commission appointed by White House, resolution was 10% pay hike and 9 hour workday
Describe Consumer Protection
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906: no drugs in foodMeat Inspection Act 1906: make sure nothing else is in meat
Describe TR's Transportation reform
Put teeth in Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Wanted to make sure there was a flow of goods around the US. Elkins Act 1903: set price to charge. Hepburn Act 1906: look at rebates for railroads
Describe TR's conservation reform
Loved wilderness & outdoor life (keep forests forever). Champion conservationist. Forest Reserve Act (done in 1891 but he used it). Newlands Reclamation Act 1902: provide irrigation for dry lands. National Conservation Commission. Gifford Pinchot: 1st director of US Forest Service
Describe TR's elections
1904: TR beat Alton Parkey. 1908: "Under no circumstances will I be a candidate or accept another nomination" (regrets this later). 1912: runs again, loses. 1919: TR dies
Describe William Howard Taft's Presidency
Republican from Ohio, president from 1909-1913. Went to Yale. 1904-1908: Secretary of War
Describe Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909
Progressive Republicans & Democrats said it didn't depart enough from past conservative Republican policies. Lowers tariff but not enough
Describe Mann-Elkins Act 1910
Extended authority of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Telephone and Telegraph under supervision of ICC. Makes progressive republicans happy
Describe Antitrust Policy
Enforced Antitrust laws. Broke up Standard Oil and American Tobacco Company. Broke up US Steel (which TR felt was a good trust & approved it)
Describe how Taft continued Conservation Policies
Bureau of Mines. Added large tracts of Appalachian land to federal reserve. Set aside federal oil land (1st)
Describe the Webb-Kenyon Interstate Liquor Shipments Act (1913)
Can't transport alcohol through dry states. He vetoed it but it was overturned (showed weakness)
What new states were added during Taft's presidency?
New Mexico and Arizona in 1912. 1st president of 48 contiguous states
What two parts did he separate into 2 different cabinet positions?
Commerce and Labor
What did the 16th amendment do?
What did Taft do in regards to conservation?
Fired Pinchot. Richard Ballinger- secretary of the interior. Ballinger opened up public land in Alaska for private development. Shows division between Progressives and Conservatives in party
Who did Taft believe didn't represent them?
Conservative House Speaker Joseph Cannon
In midterm election of 1910, who'd he support?
Who was critical of Taft? In response, how did it affect Taft?
Roosevelt. His weight balloons b/c he's depressed from criticism. Election of 1912- loses. Taft becomes Chief Justice of Supreme court from 1921-1930. Died 3/8/1930 in sleep; first presidential funeral on radio
What did progressives want to do to voter participation?
1881- Massachusetts secret ballot with record of who voted but not who you voted for
Used to be done in convention. R LaFollette of Wisconsin use majority (helps narrow down candidates) people have a say in the vote
Done from the beginning: state legislature picks senators. The millionaire's club. 1st state: Nevada 1899. 1913: 17th amendment
Direct election of senators
compel legislature to consider a bill by the people
allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on a ballot
enable voters to remove corrupt or unsatisfactory politicians from office by a majority of votes before the official's term expired
What did Municipal reform aim to do?
target city bosses and political machines
Describe Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones
Toledo, Ohio. Self-made millionaire. Comprehensive reforms: Free kindergarten, night school, public playgrounds
Voters elect heads of city departments (fire, police, sanitation)
Hired by city council to direct the work of various departments. 1923- 300 cities adopted them
Describe public utilities
Take utilities out of the hands of private companies to break power of city bosses. By 1915, 2/3 of cities owned their own water systems
Describe C.E. Hughs state reforms
Governor from NY. Went after fraudulent insurance companies
Describe H Johnson state reforms
fought against economic and political power of Southern Pacific Railroad
Describe R LaFollette state reforms
"laboratory of democracy". Wisconsin idea: instituted series of progressive reforms that included a direct primary law, tax reform, tax corporate wealth, and regulation of railroad rates
Election of 1912: Republican Party
Contentious Convention. TR wants the nomination. Taft wins nomination. Runs on his accomplishments
Election of 1912: Bull Moose Party
TR establishes the Progressive party (nicknamed Bull Moose Party). TR "strong as a bull moose". New nationalism: more gov't regulation, more unions, women's suffrage, more direct democracy, end child labor, conservation
TR assassination attempt
stuff in pockets stopped the bullet. finishes speech before he sees the doctor
Election of 1912: Democratic Party
NJ governor Woodrow Wilson. New Freedom (concentration of good power in order to dismantle trusts). Limit big business & big gov't, end corruption, revive competition by supporting small businesses, do not regulate trusts: break them up
Election of 1912: Socialist Party
Eugene Debs. Dedicated to welfare of working poor. Ran for president 6 times. Outspoken critic for business. Wanted public ownership of utilities. 8 hour workday, pensions for employer. This election is the Socialist Party at its peak- 6% of vote (900,000 votes)