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Flashcards in WWI Deck (108):
1

The Beautiful Age (peaceful time before WWI), everything ahead looks beautiful

Belle Epoque

2

What is the symbol of the Beautiful Age?

Titanic

3

What are the 4 causes of WWI?

Militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and alliances

4

belief or desire of a gov't or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests

militarism

5

the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies

imperialism

6

spirit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation; excessive patriotism

nationalism

7

3 members of the Triple Alliance

Austria-HungaryGermanyThe Ottoman Empire

8

3 members of the Triple Entente

RussiaFranceBritain

9

What happened in June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo that sparked WWI? (capital of Bosnia)

Archduke Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) and Sophie were assasinated by Gavrilo Princip who was a Serbian nationalist and member of the Black Hand who wanted the A-H throne

10

What happened on July 28, 1914?

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia b/c of Ferdinand's assassination

11

What happened on July 30, 1914?

Russia mobilizes in defense of Serbia

12

Who was a part of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers) and their leaders?

1) Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm I2) Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Joseph3) Ottoman Empire: Sultan Mehmed V4) Italy was a part of the Triple Alliance but didn't join at the beginning of the war

13

Who was a part of the Triple Entente (Allies) and their leaders?

1) Great Britain: Prime minister David Lloyd George and King George V2) France: Georges Clemenceau3) Russia: Tsar Nicholas II4) Serbia, Belgium, Japan5) 1915- Italy joins, 1917- USA joins

14

Planned in 1891. Carried out by German Commander __ __. Requires a strict timeline, knock out France before Russia can mobilize

Schlieffen PlanVon Moltke

15

Describe the Schlieffen Plan

Attack France through Belgium, capture Paris, France surrenders, 6 weeks later the German army moves to take on Russia, requires harsh treatment of civilians

16

__ __ leads Belgium and fights. Describe what Belgium did

King Albertputs up a defense & throws off timetable of the Schlieffen Plan

17

Germans capture and execute her for helping the Allies in Belgium

Nurse Sister Edith Cavell

18

__ lost to Germany in 1871. France attacks to get __ __ back while Germans head to Paris

Napoleon IIIAlsace-Lorraine

19

Describe the trenches

Stretch from English channel to Swiss border. By 1916, so long they could circle earth 2 times. Flanks disappear (sides). Barbed wire

20

Area in between trenches where there were no survivors

No Man's Land

21

Describe soldier's experience in trenches

Lots of downtime, boredom, tension, lice, disease, rats, bad weather, cold wet winter, trench foot, frostbite, gangrene, pools of water people drowned in, self inflicted wound

22

Life in trenches was an __ __ so close to the __ __

unreal nightmarereal world

23

used heavily, help the defense more

machine guns

24

burn everything in their path

flame throwers

25

Air battles planes went into

Dog Fights

26

Who was known as the Red Baron for having many kills in war?

Manfred von Richthofen

27

father of American Air Force

Billy Mitchelll

28

German submarines (unterseeboot)

U-boats

29

Describe German submarines

1st effective use of submarines; sinking enemy ships around British isles increasing; no warning or chance of surrender

30

NY to London, sank in 22 minutes; 1198 people died, 128 were American

May 7, 1915: Sinking of the Lusitania

31

Germans would stop such attacks if Britain would lift blockade; kindermood-killing of children

Sussex Pledge

32

Describe the defensive strategy: Elan Vital- Cult of Offense

Offense is preferred because you are in charge; You can justify loses when you are on offense; politician meddle and want offense; modern weapons give advantage to defense

33

Describe gas attacks

April 1915: Poison gas used; cause overproduction of fluid in the lungs that cause you to drown; known as "Blistering Mustard"; very dependent on wind; rapid development of effective respirators

34

Describe election of 1916

Republican: Charles Evan HughesDemocrat: Woodrow Wilson, "He kept us out of the war"

35

Describe Wilson's idea for a Peace Movement

Wants US to commit national prestige to the cause of international peace rather than conquest; Secretary of State Bryan will resign

36

Why does US enter WWI?

Russian RevolutionRenewed Submarine attacksUS exportsZimmerman Letter

37

Describe Tsar Nicholas II Regime Collapse

Wilson couldn't morally say to fight for democracy with an autocratic nation as an all; Russia had a fledgling democracy (not for long); if defeating Germany helped totalitarianism in Russia, Wilson wouldn't fight; Wilson can say he is fighting for democracy

38

Why did Germany choose to resume submarine attacks?Germans realize that the renewed __ __ would likely lead to US involvement; Germany feels it is worth the gamble if it keeps ___ from receiving food and munitions; war could be over before the __ gets involved; US merchant ship sunk in February 1917, US expels __ __; More __ merchant ships are __

u-boat attacksBritainUSGerman Ambassadorunarmedsunk

39

Why did the US declare war?

Zimmerman Letter

40

Describe Wilson's saying "The world must be made safer for democracy"

Fight for what we always carried nearest to our hearts, to have a voice in gov't, to have rights and liberties

41

What does the US do when entering the war?

mobilizes

42

What can we as Americans do to help war effort?

Eat less meat and less breadFood will win the war

43

What can industries do to help the war effort?

create several centralized federal agencies

44

Set production priorities, established centralized gov't control over raw material and prices

War Industries Board - by Barnard Baruch

45

use incentives for industries to increase basic food stuff and put into place an effective distribution center to get food to those who need it

Food Administration - by Herbert Hoover

46

Shifted railroad control from private to public, allowed goods to get quickly to the east coast and loaded onto ships

US Railroad Administration - by William McAdoo

47

Supply allies with combat aircraft and merchant vessels

Aircraft Production Board and Emergency Fleet Corporation

48

Begins daylight savings time and closes nonessential factories

Fuel Administration - by Harry Garfield

49

Labor in WWI: Women

As men drafted, jobs are taken by women; over 1 million women join the workforce; convinces Wilson to fully support 19th Amendment

50

Labor in WWI: African Americans

Took advantage of job openings and moved to North

51

Labor in WWI: Mexicans

Revolution in Mexico; Thousands come to US for jobs in agriculture and industry

52

Wages rose, 8 hour workday, union membership rose

National War Labor Board - by William Taft

53

How do we finance the war?

Liberty bonds

54

Liberty Bonds:Secretary of Treasury: __ __. US raises $ __ billion in 2 years by a combination of __ and __. Convince people to save money by investing in __ __ __

William McAdoo33loans & taxesfederal savings bonds

55

US Exports:1914: US exporting over __ million in goods. To Germany and Austria-Hungary, the US is trading about __ million (By 1916, US is trading less than __ million)

8001601

56

Use __ __ and __ __ to ensure public support

patriotic persuasionlegal intimidation

57

Created by __ __. Enlist volunteer services of artists, writers, and movie stars. Hate the Hun campaign

Committee of Public InformationGeorge Creel

58

Anti-German feeling:Not allowed to play __. 18th amendment- __ __. Sauerkraut was called __ __ and hamburger was called __ __

Beethovenbanned alcoholLiberty cabbageLiberty steak

59

Restricted trade with countries hostile to the US

Trading with the Enemy Act 1917

60

Restricted the type of people who would be allowed into the US

Immigration Restriction Act 1917

61

Civil liberties were curtailed in __ __

Wartime repression

62

Imprison for 20 years who try to incite rebellion in armed forces or try to obstruct operation of the draft

Espionage Act 1917

63

Prohibit people from making disloyal or abusive remarks about US gov't

Sedition Act

64

Socialist leader who was sentenced to 10 years in federal prison for speaking out against the war

Eugene Debs

65

Describe the Schenck vs the United States case

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. Upheld the constitutionality of the Sedition Act. Man distributed leaflets about war. Court said you can limit a citizen's rights if there is a clear and present danger

66

Draft men (18-45) irrespective of wealth, background, or social standing. 24 million register

Selective Service Act 1917

67

Draft _ million, _ million are volunteers

32

68

African American Soldiers:__ served in __ units, barred from the __. Few were allowed to be __. Soldiers of the __ (__ NY) won the Croix de Guerre (highest French honor)

400000segregatedMarinesofficers369th15th

69

US Navy- Convoy System:US and British naval commanders grouped __ __ into convoys. Provide them with warship __ (armed destroyers with death chargers. By end of 1917, tonnage lost dropped by __

merchant shipsescort2/3

70

Important people in Aviation History: __ __: Fighter ace and medal of honor winner, 26 aerial victories. __ __: father of US airforce

Eddie RickenbackerBilly Mitchell

71

Most famous aviation death of WWI: __ __

TR's son

72

Ranked 17th in the world. Commander __ __

American Expeditionary Force (AEF) John Pershing

73

Germans launch massive attack around Paris in March 1917. What did German hope for?

Hope to end war before Americans arrive

74

May 1918: Germans launch mass assault, move 10 miles a day, fastest pace since the start of the war, US arrives just in time to stop

Battle of Chateau - Thierry on the Marne River

75

Allies launch a counterattack

Battle of Bellau Wood

76

September 1918: One of the first solo offensives by the American. Goal (to capture city in __ hands) was not realized so Americans turn efforts elsewhere

Battle of Saint-Mihiel

77

September 1918: last line of German defenses. Allies break through

Hindenburg Line

78

Millions of allied troops advance across 200 miles inside the Argonne forest in France, cut German supply lines. By October 1918, Allies reach the German border

Battle of Meuse - Argonne Forest

79

One of the most decorated soldiers. Battle of the Meuse-Argonne. Won Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a __ __ __ nest. Took 32 machine guns, killed 28 Germans, captured 132

Sergeant Alvin YorkGerman machine gun

80

How many americans died in WWI? Who has most deaths worldwide?

126000Russia

81

March 1918: Treaty between Russia and Germany (Central powers) to end Russia's participation in WWI

Brest-Litovsk Treaty

82

When was the armistice made? What did it do immediately?

November 11, 1918Germany surrenders army, navy, and will leave occupied territory

83

Can there be a peace treaty to stop such slaughter again?

Wilson's answer: Fourteen Points

84

What did the 14 points state?

New world order based on peace and justice

85

What were Wilson's 5 broad principles for securing peace?

1) freedom of the seas2) end secret treaties3) reduction of national armaments4) self determination of nationalities with Austria-Hungary5) League of nations

86

What was the League of Nations?

international parliament and judiciary to resolve disputes peacefully

87

Where did the meeting occur in 1919 for the Peace Conference?

Versailles, Paris

88

Who was in the Big Four?

D L George- Great BritianG Clemenceau - FranceV Orlando - ItalyW Wilson - USA

89

Wilson decides to travel to __. First time sitting president has gone to __. Big mistake: asked no __ to come with him, __ in Senate are not happy about that

EuropeEuropeRepublicansRepublicans

90

__, __, & __ want revenge and compensation

England, France, & Italy

91

Describe what happened with the Treaty of Versailles

Germany was disarmed, stripped of colonies in Africa and Asia, admit guilt, accept French occupation of the Rhineland, and pay reparations

92

Independence given to __, __, __, __, & __

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Poland

93

New nations: __ & __

Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

94

Signers of Treaty join __ __ __

League of Nations

95

What part of gov't ratifies treaties?

Senate

96

Republican response:__: R Lafollette__: H C Lodge

IrreconcilablesReservationists

97

Wilson decides to tour the __ to convince the people, but he suffers a __

countrystroke

98

Senate rejects the __ __ __. Won't accept while __ is president. 1921: US officially ends war with Germany in a __ __

Treaty of VersaillesWilsonseparate treaty

99

Postwar problems in the US to consider:Demobilization:Takes jobs from __ and __ __. 1921: __ recession, 10% of workforce __

womenAfrican Americansunemployed

100

Postwar problems in the US to consider:many people died

Spanish flu

101

Postwar problems in the US to consider:communist takeover of Russia

Red Scare

102

Postwar problems in the US to consider:leader of Communist Revolution

Lenin

103

Postwar problems in the US to consider:growing fear of worldwide __

socialism

104

Postwar problems in the US to consider:Palmer Raids:Series of unexplained __. One at attorney general __ __. Ordered raids on suspected __ without __ __. Suspected __ held for weeks without formal charges. Creates special office under __ __ to gather info on radicals

BombingsA PalmerRadicalsSearch WarrantsCommunistsJ Hoover

105

Postwar problems in the US to consider:Labor Conflicts:__ regarded with distrust. Fear worldwide __. Strikes of 1919: February- 60000 __ __ strike for higher pay, September- __ __ goes on strike, state & federal troops called and violence ensues

Unionsrevolutionshipyard workersUS Steel

106

What happens in September 1919?

Boston police strike

107

Describe Boston police strike

Go on strike because people were fired for trying to unionize. Governor of Massachusetts- Calvin Coolidge sends in the National Guard

108

Describe Race riots and violence

Black migration north increased tension. Whites resented competition for jobs. Chicago 1919: 40 killed, 500 injured. Increased lynchings in the South