Flashcards in WWI Deck (108):
The Beautiful Age (peaceful time before WWI), everything ahead looks beautiful
What is the symbol of the Beautiful Age?
What are the 4 causes of WWI?
Militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and alliances
belief or desire of a gov't or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies
spirit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation; excessive patriotism
3 members of the Triple Alliance
Austria-HungaryGermanyThe Ottoman Empire
3 members of the Triple Entente
What happened in June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo that sparked WWI? (capital of Bosnia)
Archduke Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) and Sophie were assasinated by Gavrilo Princip who was a Serbian nationalist and member of the Black Hand who wanted the A-H throne
What happened on July 28, 1914?
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia b/c of Ferdinand's assassination
What happened on July 30, 1914?
Russia mobilizes in defense of Serbia
Who was a part of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers) and their leaders?
1) Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm I2) Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Joseph3) Ottoman Empire: Sultan Mehmed V4) Italy was a part of the Triple Alliance but didn't join at the beginning of the war
Who was a part of the Triple Entente (Allies) and their leaders?
1) Great Britain: Prime minister David Lloyd George and King George V2) France: Georges Clemenceau3) Russia: Tsar Nicholas II4) Serbia, Belgium, Japan5) 1915- Italy joins, 1917- USA joins
Planned in 1891. Carried out by German Commander __ __. Requires a strict timeline, knock out France before Russia can mobilize
Schlieffen PlanVon Moltke
Describe the Schlieffen Plan
Attack France through Belgium, capture Paris, France surrenders, 6 weeks later the German army moves to take on Russia, requires harsh treatment of civilians
__ __ leads Belgium and fights. Describe what Belgium did
King Albertputs up a defense & throws off timetable of the Schlieffen Plan
Germans capture and execute her for helping the Allies in Belgium
Nurse Sister Edith Cavell
__ lost to Germany in 1871. France attacks to get __ __ back while Germans head to Paris
Describe the trenches
Stretch from English channel to Swiss border. By 1916, so long they could circle earth 2 times. Flanks disappear (sides). Barbed wire
Area in between trenches where there were no survivors
No Man's Land
Describe soldier's experience in trenches
Lots of downtime, boredom, tension, lice, disease, rats, bad weather, cold wet winter, trench foot, frostbite, gangrene, pools of water people drowned in, self inflicted wound
Life in trenches was an __ __ so close to the __ __
unreal nightmarereal world
used heavily, help the defense more
burn everything in their path
Air battles planes went into
Who was known as the Red Baron for having many kills in war?
Manfred von Richthofen
father of American Air Force
German submarines (unterseeboot)
Describe German submarines
1st effective use of submarines; sinking enemy ships around British isles increasing; no warning or chance of surrender
NY to London, sank in 22 minutes; 1198 people died, 128 were American
May 7, 1915: Sinking of the Lusitania
Germans would stop such attacks if Britain would lift blockade; kindermood-killing of children
Describe the defensive strategy: Elan Vital- Cult of Offense
Offense is preferred because you are in charge; You can justify loses when you are on offense; politician meddle and want offense; modern weapons give advantage to defense
Describe gas attacks
April 1915: Poison gas used; cause overproduction of fluid in the lungs that cause you to drown; known as "Blistering Mustard"; very dependent on wind; rapid development of effective respirators
Describe election of 1916
Republican: Charles Evan HughesDemocrat: Woodrow Wilson, "He kept us out of the war"
Describe Wilson's idea for a Peace Movement
Wants US to commit national prestige to the cause of international peace rather than conquest; Secretary of State Bryan will resign
Why does US enter WWI?
Russian RevolutionRenewed Submarine attacksUS exportsZimmerman Letter
Describe Tsar Nicholas II Regime Collapse
Wilson couldn't morally say to fight for democracy with an autocratic nation as an all; Russia had a fledgling democracy (not for long); if defeating Germany helped totalitarianism in Russia, Wilson wouldn't fight; Wilson can say he is fighting for democracy
Why did Germany choose to resume submarine attacks?Germans realize that the renewed __ __ would likely lead to US involvement; Germany feels it is worth the gamble if it keeps ___ from receiving food and munitions; war could be over before the __ gets involved; US merchant ship sunk in February 1917, US expels __ __; More __ merchant ships are __
u-boat attacksBritainUSGerman Ambassadorunarmedsunk
Why did the US declare war?
Describe Wilson's saying "The world must be made safer for democracy"
Fight for what we always carried nearest to our hearts, to have a voice in gov't, to have rights and liberties
What does the US do when entering the war?
What can we as Americans do to help war effort?
Eat less meat and less breadFood will win the war
What can industries do to help the war effort?
create several centralized federal agencies
Set production priorities, established centralized gov't control over raw material and prices
War Industries Board - by Barnard Baruch
use incentives for industries to increase basic food stuff and put into place an effective distribution center to get food to those who need it
Food Administration - by Herbert Hoover
Shifted railroad control from private to public, allowed goods to get quickly to the east coast and loaded onto ships
US Railroad Administration - by William McAdoo
Supply allies with combat aircraft and merchant vessels
Aircraft Production Board and Emergency Fleet Corporation
Begins daylight savings time and closes nonessential factories
Fuel Administration - by Harry Garfield
Labor in WWI: Women
As men drafted, jobs are taken by women; over 1 million women join the workforce; convinces Wilson to fully support 19th Amendment
Labor in WWI: African Americans
Took advantage of job openings and moved to North
Labor in WWI: Mexicans
Revolution in Mexico; Thousands come to US for jobs in agriculture and industry
Wages rose, 8 hour workday, union membership rose
National War Labor Board - by William Taft
How do we finance the war?
Liberty Bonds:Secretary of Treasury: __ __. US raises $ __ billion in 2 years by a combination of __ and __. Convince people to save money by investing in __ __ __
William McAdoo33loans & taxesfederal savings bonds
US Exports:1914: US exporting over __ million in goods. To Germany and Austria-Hungary, the US is trading about __ million (By 1916, US is trading less than __ million)
Use __ __ and __ __ to ensure public support
patriotic persuasionlegal intimidation
Created by __ __. Enlist volunteer services of artists, writers, and movie stars. Hate the Hun campaign
Committee of Public InformationGeorge Creel
Anti-German feeling:Not allowed to play __. 18th amendment- __ __. Sauerkraut was called __ __ and hamburger was called __ __
Beethovenbanned alcoholLiberty cabbageLiberty steak
Restricted trade with countries hostile to the US
Trading with the Enemy Act 1917
Restricted the type of people who would be allowed into the US
Immigration Restriction Act 1917
Civil liberties were curtailed in __ __
Imprison for 20 years who try to incite rebellion in armed forces or try to obstruct operation of the draft
Espionage Act 1917
Prohibit people from making disloyal or abusive remarks about US gov't
Socialist leader who was sentenced to 10 years in federal prison for speaking out against the war
Describe the Schenck vs the United States case
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. Upheld the constitutionality of the Sedition Act. Man distributed leaflets about war. Court said you can limit a citizen's rights if there is a clear and present danger
Draft men (18-45) irrespective of wealth, background, or social standing. 24 million register
Selective Service Act 1917
Draft _ million, _ million are volunteers
African American Soldiers:__ served in __ units, barred from the __. Few were allowed to be __. Soldiers of the __ (__ NY) won the Croix de Guerre (highest French honor)
US Navy- Convoy System:US and British naval commanders grouped __ __ into convoys. Provide them with warship __ (armed destroyers with death chargers. By end of 1917, tonnage lost dropped by __
Important people in Aviation History: __ __: Fighter ace and medal of honor winner, 26 aerial victories. __ __: father of US airforce
Eddie RickenbackerBilly Mitchell
Most famous aviation death of WWI: __ __
Ranked 17th in the world. Commander __ __
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) John Pershing
Germans launch massive attack around Paris in March 1917. What did German hope for?
Hope to end war before Americans arrive
May 1918: Germans launch mass assault, move 10 miles a day, fastest pace since the start of the war, US arrives just in time to stop
Battle of Chateau - Thierry on the Marne River
Allies launch a counterattack
Battle of Bellau Wood
September 1918: One of the first solo offensives by the American. Goal (to capture city in __ hands) was not realized so Americans turn efforts elsewhere
Battle of Saint-Mihiel
September 1918: last line of German defenses. Allies break through
Millions of allied troops advance across 200 miles inside the Argonne forest in France, cut German supply lines. By October 1918, Allies reach the German border
Battle of Meuse - Argonne Forest
One of the most decorated soldiers. Battle of the Meuse-Argonne. Won Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a __ __ __ nest. Took 32 machine guns, killed 28 Germans, captured 132
Sergeant Alvin YorkGerman machine gun
How many americans died in WWI? Who has most deaths worldwide?
March 1918: Treaty between Russia and Germany (Central powers) to end Russia's participation in WWI
When was the armistice made? What did it do immediately?
November 11, 1918Germany surrenders army, navy, and will leave occupied territory
Can there be a peace treaty to stop such slaughter again?
Wilson's answer: Fourteen Points
What did the 14 points state?
New world order based on peace and justice
What were Wilson's 5 broad principles for securing peace?
1) freedom of the seas2) end secret treaties3) reduction of national armaments4) self determination of nationalities with Austria-Hungary5) League of nations
What was the League of Nations?
international parliament and judiciary to resolve disputes peacefully
Where did the meeting occur in 1919 for the Peace Conference?
Who was in the Big Four?
D L George- Great BritianG Clemenceau - FranceV Orlando - ItalyW Wilson - USA
Wilson decides to travel to __. First time sitting president has gone to __. Big mistake: asked no __ to come with him, __ in Senate are not happy about that
__, __, & __ want revenge and compensation
England, France, & Italy
Describe what happened with the Treaty of Versailles
Germany was disarmed, stripped of colonies in Africa and Asia, admit guilt, accept French occupation of the Rhineland, and pay reparations
Independence given to __, __, __, __, & __
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Poland
New nations: __ & __
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
Signers of Treaty join __ __ __
League of Nations
What part of gov't ratifies treaties?
Republican response:__: R Lafollette__: H C Lodge
Wilson decides to tour the __ to convince the people, but he suffers a __
Senate rejects the __ __ __. Won't accept while __ is president. 1921: US officially ends war with Germany in a __ __
Treaty of VersaillesWilsonseparate treaty
Postwar problems in the US to consider:Demobilization:Takes jobs from __ and __ __. 1921: __ recession, 10% of workforce __
Postwar problems in the US to consider:many people died
Postwar problems in the US to consider:communist takeover of Russia
Postwar problems in the US to consider:leader of Communist Revolution
Postwar problems in the US to consider:growing fear of worldwide __
Postwar problems in the US to consider:Palmer Raids:Series of unexplained __. One at attorney general __ __. Ordered raids on suspected __ without __ __. Suspected __ held for weeks without formal charges. Creates special office under __ __ to gather info on radicals
BombingsA PalmerRadicalsSearch WarrantsCommunistsJ Hoover
Postwar problems in the US to consider:Labor Conflicts:__ regarded with distrust. Fear worldwide __. Strikes of 1919: February- 60000 __ __ strike for higher pay, September- __ __ goes on strike, state & federal troops called and violence ensues
Unionsrevolutionshipyard workersUS Steel
What happens in September 1919?
Boston police strike
Describe Boston police strike
Go on strike because people were fired for trying to unionize. Governor of Massachusetts- Calvin Coolidge sends in the National Guard