Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (86):
Who/what is the source of all political power?
Types of Government:
People who don't want any type of government
- It is both economic and political
- The government owns part of the means of production
The government owns all of the means of production
The people run the government
- Generally capitalistic
A king has power
Types of Monarchies
1. Absolute: King has absolute power
2. Constitutional: King shares power with the people
Factors of Production
4 Basic Economic Questions
1. What should be produced?
2. How much should be produced?
3. What methods should be used?
4. How should these goods and services be distributed?
What was the Magna Carta?
It was an attempt to limit the authority of the king
Principles that we use today from the Magna Carta:
1. The right to a trial by jury
2. The right to due process of law
3. No taxation without consent
What is due process?
There are certain procedures
English Common Law
2. All men are equal under the law
3. Life, Liberty, and Property may not be taken illegally
The practice of judges basing their decisions on previous cases
Published The Prince
What does he discuss in The Prince?
Discusses what makes an effective government
What does he conclude in The Prince?
- He concludes that successful governments are those in which the citizens felt a patriotic attachment to the state
- He also concludes that governments act in their own self interest
Writes Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
What does he express in Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture?
He supports Royal Absolutism and the Divine Right of Kings
King James I
Writes Free Law of Free Monarchy
What does King James I believe about the kingdom?
- He thinks that he is like the head of the family and he takes care of the people
- He thinks they should be grateful
Writes Six Books of the Republic
What does he state in the Six Books of the Republic?
- In every country there must be a supreme power
- The king must be constrained by natural law
What did Jean Bodin support?
Legis summi imperii
What does Legis summi imperii?
What does Sallic Law mean?
No women in charge
What was the purpose of the English Petition of Rights?
1. Limit royal authority
2. King could not levy taxes without Parliaments consent
3. King could not imprison someone without a specific charge, and provisions had to be provided for a jury trial
4. King could not quarter (house) soldiers in private homes without the consent of the owners
Result of English Civil War and Commonwealth?
1. The idea of an absolute monarch in England in destroyed forever
2. The House of Commons becomes the dominant political power in England
3. Opposition to a standing army
What does Thomas Hobbes believe?
He thinks that man without government is a "state of nature"
What does the Act of Habeas Corpus do?
1. Makes it illegal for someone to be arrested without a charge
2. Illegal to arrest someone without making provisions for a jury trial
What was the purpose of English Bill of Rights?
Limit the power of the king
What does the English Bill of Rights do?
King could not:
1. Suspend law
2. Levy taxes
3. Raise an army without Parliaments consent
4. Interfere in Parliamentary elections
What was the Enlightenment?
An intellectual movement
Focuses of the Enlightenment
3. Human Nature
4. Natural Law
Writers of the Enlightenment
What did the philosophs believe?
1. That by observing behavior in history and in the present, one can discover the laws that govern human nature and these laws can be used to design a harmonious and orderly society
2. Freedom of thought
3. Freedom of religion
- Most of them are middle class or nobility
A ruler justified his authority on his usefulness to society
- The ruler is the nations servant
Example of Enlightened Despotism
Emperor Joseph of Austria
Wrote Two Treatises of Government
What does John Locke believe?
1. Man is born in a Blank Slate
2. Man is born with certain God given natural rights
3. Government was created to protect Natural Rights
4. If government fails to protect those rights, man has the right to replace that government
- Right of Revolution
Baron de Montesquieu
Publishes The Spirit of Laws
What does Baron de Montesquieu support?
Separation of Powers
3 Groups to Separate the Power
One group to:
1. Make the law
2. Enforce the Law
3. Interprets the law
What did Voltaire believe?
1. Rulers should use their authority to promote reform
2. Freedom of religion
- State churches had too much power
3. Freedom of thought/expression
Change for the better
The government read everything before publication
Voltaire also wrote
Topic of Candide
It criticized society
Jean Jacques Rousseau
What did Jean Jacques Rousseau write in his book?
The general will (majority) if determined democratically is more important than the will of any individual
What did Jean Jacques Rousseau believe?
1. The 3 Natural Rights
2. The Right of Revolution
Marquis Cesare di Beccaria
Published: An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
What does Marquis Cesare di Beccaria recommend?
He recommends a system of laws that will apply equally to all classes
The economists of the Enlightenment (wrote about economic issues)
What did the Physiocrats believe?
Land is the source of real wealth
- Wrote The Economic Table
What did Quesnay support in The Economic Table?
he supports Laissez-Faire
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealthy Nations
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealthy Nations states what?
Wealth is based off of production and because of this the government should encourage the people to produce as much as possible
Who is the head of state?
What is Parliament?
Legislative and Executive
Means it has two parts to the legislation
What two parts make up Parliament?
1. House of Commons
2. House of Lords
Articles of the Confederates
First government in America
- Didnt work because it gave the states too much power and took away power from the central government
Constitutional Convention purpose?
To revise the Articles of the Confederates
President of the Constitutional Convention
Father of the Constitution
Oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
Chairman of the Committee of Style
5 Goals of the Constitutional Convention:
1. Create a republic
2. Create a stronger central government
3. Create a written constitution
4. Government that will protect property and human rights
5. To reform society
3 Major Areas of Conflict:
- Agricultural vs Commercial
2. Strengthen the National Government
3. Representation in Congress
- Large states vs small states
Who is the author of the Virginia Plan?
What was the government like in the Virginia Plan?
3 Branches of Government:
2. Executive- Chosen by government
3. Judicial- Chosen by government
Other parts to the Virginia Plan
1. Bicameral: Two houses
2. Representation based on population
3. Lower house chosen by voters
4. Upper house chosen by lower house
5. Each representative has one vote
Author of the New Jersey Plan
What is the government like in the New Jersey Plan?
3 Branches of Government
2. Executive: Committee of 3
3. Judicial Branch: Chosen by Congress
What are the other parts to the New Jersey Plan?
2. Members chosen by voters
3. Each state has one vote
4. Increased powers of congress
Connecticut Compromise author
What two houses did the Connecticut Compromise have?
1. Lower house
2. Upper house
What was part of the Lower house?
1. House of Representatives
2. Membership based on population
3. Chosen by voters
4. Each member has one vote
What was part of the Upper house?
2. Each state has two members and two votes
3. Chosen by state legislature
Which plan was accepted?
The Connecticut Compromise
What was the purpose of the Electoral College?
To chose the President and Vice President