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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (86):
0

Who/what is the source of all political power?

God

1

Types of Government:

1. Anarchy
2. Socialism
3. Communism
4. Democracy
5. Monarchy

2

Anarchy

People who don't want any type of government

3

Socialism

- It is both economic and political
- The government owns part of the means of production

4

Communism

The government owns all of the means of production

5

Democracy

The people run the government
- Generally capitalistic

6

Monarchy

A king has power

7

Types of Monarchies

1. Absolute: King has absolute power
2. Constitutional: King shares power with the people

8

Factors of Production

1. Land
2. Labor
3. Capital
4. Entrepreneurship
5. Technology

9

4 Basic Economic Questions

1. What should be produced?
2. How much should be produced?
3. What methods should be used?
4. How should these goods and services be distributed?

10

What was the Magna Carta?

It was an attempt to limit the authority of the king

11

Principles that we use today from the Magna Carta:

1. The right to a trial by jury
2. The right to due process of law
3. No taxation without consent

12

What is due process?

There are certain procedures

13

English Common Law

1. Precedent
2. All men are equal under the law
3. Life, Liberty, and Property may not be taken illegally

14

Precedent

The practice of judges basing their decisions on previous cases

15

Niccolo Machavelli

Published The Prince

16

What does he discuss in The Prince?

Discusses what makes an effective government

17

What does he conclude in The Prince?

- He concludes that successful governments are those in which the citizens felt a patriotic attachment to the state
- He also concludes that governments act in their own self interest

18

Bishop Bossuet

Writes Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture

19

What does he express in Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture?

He supports Royal Absolutism and the Divine Right of Kings

20

King James I

Writes Free Law of Free Monarchy

21

What does King James I believe about the kingdom?

- He thinks that he is like the head of the family and he takes care of the people
- He thinks they should be grateful

22

Jean Bodin

Writes Six Books of the Republic

23

What does he state in the Six Books of the Republic?

- In every country there must be a supreme power
- The king must be constrained by natural law

24

What did Jean Bodin support?

Legis summi imperii

25

What does Legis summi imperii?

Sallic Law

26

What does Sallic Law mean?

No women in charge

27

What was the purpose of the English Petition of Rights?

1. Limit royal authority
2. King could not levy taxes without Parliaments consent
3. King could not imprison someone without a specific charge, and provisions had to be provided for a jury trial
4. King could not quarter (house) soldiers in private homes without the consent of the owners

28

Result of English Civil War and Commonwealth?

1. The idea of an absolute monarch in England in destroyed forever
2. The House of Commons becomes the dominant political power in England
3. Opposition to a standing army

29

Thomas Hobbes

Writes Leviathan

30

What does Thomas Hobbes believe?

He thinks that man without government is a "state of nature"

31

What does the Act of Habeas Corpus do?

1. Makes it illegal for someone to be arrested without a charge
2. Illegal to arrest someone without making provisions for a jury trial

32

What was the purpose of English Bill of Rights?

Limit the power of the king

33

What does the English Bill of Rights do?

King could not:
1. Suspend law
2. Levy taxes
3. Raise an army without Parliaments consent
4. Interfere in Parliamentary elections

34

What was the Enlightenment?

An intellectual movement

35

Focuses of the Enlightenment

1. Science
2. Reason
3. Human Nature
4. Natural Law

36

Philosophs

Writers of the Enlightenment

37

What did the philosophs believe?

1. That by observing behavior in history and in the present, one can discover the laws that govern human nature and these laws can be used to design a harmonious and orderly society
2. Freedom of thought
3. Freedom of religion
- Most of them are middle class or nobility

38

Enlightened Despotism

A ruler justified his authority on his usefulness to society
- The ruler is the nations servant

39

Example of Enlightened Despotism

Emperor Joseph of Austria

40

John Locke

Wrote Two Treatises of Government

41

What does John Locke believe?

1. Man is born in a Blank Slate
2. Man is born with certain God given natural rights
3. Government was created to protect Natural Rights
4. If government fails to protect those rights, man has the right to replace that government
- Right of Revolution

42

Baron de Montesquieu

Publishes The Spirit of Laws

43

What does Baron de Montesquieu support?

Separation of Powers

44

3 Groups to Separate the Power

One group to:
1. Make the law
2. Enforce the Law
3. Interprets the law

45

What did Voltaire believe?

1. Rulers should use their authority to promote reform
2. Freedom of religion
- State churches had too much power
3. Freedom of thought/expression

46

Reform

Change for the better

47

Censorship

The government read everything before publication

48

Voltaire also wrote

Candide

49

Topic of Candide

It criticized society

50

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract

51

What did Jean Jacques Rousseau write in his book?

The general will (majority) if determined democratically is more important than the will of any individual

52

What did Jean Jacques Rousseau believe?

1. The 3 Natural Rights
2. The Right of Revolution

53

Marquis Cesare di Beccaria

Published: An Essay on Crimes and Punishments

54

What does Marquis Cesare di Beccaria recommend?

He recommends a system of laws that will apply equally to all classes

55

Physiocrats

The economists of the Enlightenment (wrote about economic issues)

56

What did the Physiocrats believe?

Land is the source of real wealth

57

Francois Quesnay

Famous physiocrat
- Wrote The Economic Table

58

What did Quesnay support in The Economic Table?

he supports Laissez-Faire

59

Adam Smith

Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealthy Nations

60

Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealthy Nations states what?

Wealth is based off of production and because of this the government should encourage the people to produce as much as possible

61

Who is the head of state?

The King

62

What is Parliament?

Legislative and Executive

63

Bicameral

Means it has two parts to the legislation

64

What two parts make up Parliament?

1. House of Commons
2. House of Lords

65

Articles of the Confederates

First government in America
- Didnt work because it gave the states too much power and took away power from the central government

66

Constitutional Convention purpose?

To revise the Articles of the Confederates

67

President of the Constitutional Convention

George Washington

68

Father of the Constitution

James Madison

69

Oldest member of the Constitutional Convention

Benjamin Franklin

70

Chairman of the Committee of Style

Gouverneur Morris

71

5 Goals of the Constitutional Convention:

They want:
1. Create a republic
2. Create a stronger central government
3. Create a written constitution
4. Government that will protect property and human rights
5. To reform society

72

3 Major Areas of Conflict:

1. Economics
- Agricultural vs Commercial
2. Strengthen the National Government
3. Representation in Congress
- Large states vs small states

73

Who is the author of the Virginia Plan?

James Madison

74

What was the government like in the Virginia Plan?

3 Branches of Government:
1. Legislative
2. Executive- Chosen by government
3. Judicial- Chosen by government

75

Other parts to the Virginia Plan

1. Bicameral: Two houses
2. Representation based on population
3. Lower house chosen by voters
4. Upper house chosen by lower house
5. Each representative has one vote

76

Author of the New Jersey Plan

William Patterson

77

What is the government like in the New Jersey Plan?

3 Branches of Government
1. Legislative
2. Executive: Committee of 3
3. Judicial Branch: Chosen by Congress

78

What are the other parts to the New Jersey Plan?

1. Unicameral
2. Members chosen by voters
3. Each state has one vote
4. Increased powers of congress

79

Connecticut Compromise author

Roger Sherman

80

What two houses did the Connecticut Compromise have?

1. Lower house
2. Upper house

81

What was part of the Lower house?

1. House of Representatives
2. Membership based on population
3. Chosen by voters
4. Each member has one vote

82

What was part of the Upper house?

1. Senate
2. Each state has two members and two votes
3. Chosen by state legislature

83

Which plan was accepted?

The Connecticut Compromise

84

What was the purpose of the Electoral College?

To chose the President and Vice President

85

Rules of the Electoral College:

- The number of electors awarded to each state is equal to the number of congressman
- Electors chosen by state legislature
- Each elector casts two votes
- First place is president, second place is Vice President
- If no one wins a majority, the election goes to the House of Representatives with each state having one vote