Chapter 2, Exam #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2, Exam #1 Deck (20)
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1

Paradigm

in the scientific process, scientists operate with a set of assumptions about their field, and these underlying suppositions direct their thinking and guide their approach to investigations

2

theories

a systematic explanation of phenomenon that is testable and stated in terms of cause and effect

3

hypotheses

a prediction about what should happen in a given situation based on an informed guess or hutch. derived from a larger theory or observation of nature

4

law/principle

a description of a set of observed cause and effect relationships that have been repeatedly and consistently demonstrated. these descriptions are derived from reliable deductions from testing theories or inductions from recurrent naturalistic observations

5

independent variable

manipulated or controlled by the researcher and produced a change in other variables

6

dependent variable

changes as a result of changes in other variables

7

extraneous variable

interfere with confirming that an independent variable has had an effect on the dependent variable

8

ABAB design

baseline, treatment, no treatment, treatment

9

Operational definition

description of a term or observation that is expressed as the “operations” used in the definition

10

measurement

the process of assigning numbers t our observations

11

cumulative record

continuous recording of accumulated number of responses emitted over a period of time- a measure of the rate of responding

12

baseline period

a measurement, calculation, or location used as a basis for comparison

13

positive correlation

a relationship between two variables in which both variables move in the same direction

14

negative correlation

a relationship between two variables in which one variable increases and the other decreases

15

experimental group

group of participants who receive the drug or treatment being studied in a clinical experiment

16

control group

in a quantitative scientific experiment, subjects are divided into two groups, the variable being tested is applied to one group, but not the other; the second group, which does not receive the treatment, is the control group.

17

What are the pros and cons of the 5 basic research designs?

(1) anecdotal evidence: pros: reflect real life situations. Cons: subject to bias, not generalizable, difficult to repeat, cannot demonstrate cause
(2) case studies: pros: reflects real life situations, objective. Cons: difficult to generalize, difficult to repeat, cannot demonstrate cause and effect
(3) descriptive studies: pros: reflects real life situations, objective, general cons: difficult to repeat, cannot demonstrate cause and effect relationships
(4) Comparative/ correlational studies (are these things related): Explore more than one variable at a time. Naturalistic, objectivity, generality, repeatability
(5) Controlled experiment (the cause and effect): Naturalistic???, objectivity, generality, repeatability, causality

18

what are the 4 ways of knowing?

scientific validity, external proof, empirical evidence, and rationality

19

what are the 4 stages of the scientific method?

problem definition, study design, analysis, and publication

20

What are the pros and cons to using animals as research subjects?

1. Helps researchers to find drugs and treatments. 2. Helps insure safety of drugs. 3. Alternative methods of testing do not stimulate humans in the same way. Cons are 1. Some substances tested may never be used for anything useful. 2. It is expensive. 3. Animals and humans are never exactly the same