Chapter 6, Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6, Exam #2 Deck (40)
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1

cumulative responses

number of responses

2

response rate

number of responses over time

3

continuous reinforcement

a correct response is reinforced every time it occurs

4

Intermittent (partial) reinforcement

reinforcement occurs for some responses but not all

5

ratio schedule

reinforcement is based on the number of responses (the ratio of reinforced to non reinforced responses

6

interval schedule

reinforcement is based on the time since the last reinforced response

7

Fixed ratio (FR)

the number of reinforced responses is a fixed number

8

Variable ratio (VR)

the number of reinforced responses varies

9

Post-reinforcement pause

a pause in responding following reinforcement, associated primarily with FI and FR schedules

10

run rate

the rate at which a behavior occurs once it has resumed reinforcement

11

Fixed interval (FI)

The amount of time the animal must wait until the next response is reinforced is fixed

12

Variable interval (VI)

The number of reinforced responses varies

13

Fixed time (FT)

reinforce is delivered after a period of time without regard to behavior

14

Variable time (VT)

reinforcers delivered at irregular intervals, regardless of behavior

15

Fixed duration (FD)

Reinforcer is delivered if a behavior occurs continuously over a period of time

16

Variable duration (VD)

Required period of performance varies around some average

17

Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)

rates of responding can be achieved by reinforcing lower levels of the behavior

18

Differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)

rates of responding refers to situations in which the reinforcement is contingent on rapid responding

19

Differential reinforcement of zero responses (DRO)

demonstrated by reinforcing the behavior of not responding

20

Differential reinforcement of alternative responses (DRA)

combination of reinforcement and extinction
Rate of alternative behavior increases, the undesired behavior will start to extinguish due to reduction in whatever was reinforcing the problem behavior

21

Differential reinforcement of incompatible responses (DRI)

identifying an alternative behavior that just distracts the person from the target behavior, but runs counter to the behavior

22

ratio stretch

start the animal out on a low ratio schedule (FR-1) then gradually increase the ratio (FR-3, FR-5, FR-10) stretching too fast or far creates strain

23

ratio strain

disruption of the pattern of responding due to stretching the ratio of reinforcement too abruptly or too far

24

Partial reinforcement effect

the tendency of a behavior to be more resistant to extinction following partial reinforcement than following continuous reinforcement

25

Resistance to extinction

intermittent (partial) reinforcement schedules, compared to continuous reinforcement schedules, make animals reluctant to give up responding when the reinforcers stop

26

Fixed ratio ex

the stair-step function: pierce rate, fixed commission

27

Variable ratio ex

the high, steady-rate function: telemarket sales, slot machines

28

Fixed interval ex

scalloped function: asking for a raise, studying for exam

29

Variable interval ex

the low, steady-rate function: management by walking around, spot bonuses

30

Fixed time ex

FT-10 means the animal gets a reinforcer after 10 seconds no matter what it happens to be doing