Chapter 4, Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4, Exam #2 Deck (57)
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1

operant (emitted) behavior

behavior that operate on the environment, producing consequences. is controllable by the individual (pavlova dog if it came when it called it would receive a treat)

2

trial and error/success

in pavlonian conditioning, a test trial is the procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus on some occasions without the unconditioned stimulus to see if learning has occurred (ringing bell without food to see if salivates)

3

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting stimulus (food)

4

positive reinforcer

any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens that response

5

primary reinforcer

naturally or innately reinforcing stimuli (food water sex)

6

secondary reinforcer

reinforcers that are dependent on their association with other reinforcers (praise, recognition, money)

7

generalized reinforcer

secondary reinforcers that have been paired with a wide variety of primary reinforcers (money, praise)

8

successive approximation

is a series of rewards that provide positive reinforcement for behavior changes that are successive steps towards the final desired behavior

9

acquisition

gradual increase in responding when reinforcing stimulus follows the behavior (toilet training, pet tricks)

10

spontaneous recovery

recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, following a rest period

11

primary drives

reinforcers that appeal to an animals direct physiological needs like hunger, thirst, sex, or shelter

12

drive

motivational force, tension from unfulfilled needs

13

escape conditioning

a type of negative reinforcement in which the animal tries to escape the noxious stimuli by performing the desired behavior after the noxious stimuli has been introduced

14

reflexive behavior

autonomic, involuntary responses to stimuli

15

law of effect

tany behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.

16

negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli

17

negative reinforcer

any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response

18

superstitious behavior

a form of acquisition where any increase in strength of behavior that is due to coincidental reinforcement, we may not be conscious of behavior

19

chaining

performing behaviors in a sequence

20

forward chaining

training first to last

21

backward chaining

training last to first

22

extinction

a procedure in which he reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. also may be used to describe the process by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement

23

resurgence

return of a behavior previously extinguished following the extinction of another behavior, its not always a return to primary behavior

24

secondary drives

reinforcers that gain their rewarding properties by being associated with primary reinforcers ( money is associated with buying food thus is a reward; food is associated with hunger)

25

avoidance conditioning

training of an organism to withdraw from an unpleasant stimulus before it starts

26

sequence of events that leads to reinforcement or punishment

basic UCS-UCR-CS-CR

27

Why is classical conditioning termed S-S and operant conditioning termed S-R-S

classical conditioning is pairing 2 stimulus. operant conditioning is based upon stimulus and response

28

positive reinforcement ex

give candy when child does chores, more likely to do chores

29

negative reinforcement ex

remove hand from stove

30

primary reinforcer ex

sex, food, water