Chapter 11, Exam #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11, Exam #3 Deck (42)
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1

phonemes

set of sounds that are characteristic of a given language, the smallest set of sound units that have significance for language

2

monosyllabic cries

single syllable cries (ah, uh)

3

morphemes

the smallest units of a language that denote meaning, can be individual words (root words) but they can also consist of the various prefixes suffxes and inflections we add to words

4

syntax

refers to the rules and processes by which people put words together to form sentences

5

semantics

the branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words, phrases, sentences, and discourse (paragraphs, chapters, stories)

6

pragmatics

last level in the language hierarchy, the practical, day to day use of language, it is how we use language in social situations, how we modify what we say, and understand what is said, given the context and how we use our prior knowledge and experience to comprehend what we hear and read

7

cooing

noises made by a child between birth and 4 months

8

babbling

at 6 months the child begins to make a very wide range of sounds, an important milestone, child makes sounds that could belong to to almost any language and can hear differences among a huge variety of sounds

9

echolalic speech

the notion that the child will begin to imitate the sounds that he or she hears and repeats them, occurring between 9-12 month, it allows the child to process and practice more of the speech sounds in the environment

10

holophrastic speech

at 1 year of age, children only have single words and have not figure out how to combine words to make sensible statements, this is called holophrastic speech, which means that they use those individual words as if they were whole phrases by using context, stress and pitch

11

telegraphic speech

when the child leaves out many of the "unnecessary" words or morphemes (propositions, articles)

12

linguistic universal

common factors of language that are seen universally (vowel consonants)

13

critical period

when the human child is maturationally ready to acquire language. language is best learned early in life and becomes more difficult later on

14

hemispheric specialization

the language functions of the brain are located for 90% of the population

15

brocas area

an area in the brain that is responsible for producing speech and speech sounds

16

wernickes area

an area in the brain that is responsible for understanding and interpreting

17

Why is the structure of language represented as a pyramid? Why are phonemes located at the top and language pragmatics placed at the bottom?

Language is a structure that depends on the one before, pragmatics are a building block in the language pyramid. Phonemes are composed in everything

18

During the acquisition of language, which of the three main features of language (phonology, syntax, and semantics) is learned first? Why?

Phonology is learned first because they are the sounds, and noises that babies start off doing. Then syntax and semantics both increase the meaning of the language

19

What does a child need to learn first before he or she can start to make meaningful utterances (e.g., words like “mama,” or “ball”)?

Successive approximation must occur: by being rewarded for saying the most articulated version of the word
Object permanence- the relationship of words to the subject they are related to

20

What does it mean to say that children’s comprehension of language exceeds their performance?

Competence- performance difference
They understand but cannot duplicate.
• Sensorimotor - monosyllabic cries, cooing, coordination, movement, vocalization, rhythm, word segments, babbling, echolalic speech, object permanence
• Pre-operations - holophrastic speech, syntax, two-word sentences, telegraphic speech, mulit-word sentences, overgeneralization, comprehension (rather than performance), semantic, vocab.

21

developmental stage: Cooing

sensorimotor

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developmental stage: holophrastic speech

transition to preoperations

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developmental stage:
telegraphic speech

transition to preoperation

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developmental stage: babbling

sensorimotor

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developmental stage: semantic differentiation

transition to preoperation

26

developmental stage: syntactic overgeneralization

transition to preoperation

27

developmental stage: complex grammar

preoperational

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developmental stage: meaningful utterances

transition to preoperation

29

developmental stage: echolalic speech

sensorimotor

30

How does a behavioral approach to language learning employ: Classical conditioning

First words associated with emotional reactions they have, mama get associated with comfort of mom