Chapter 5, Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5, Exam #2 Deck (36)
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positive punishment

behavior leads to a consequence, you add a stimulus to decrease the probability of behavior happening again (yelling, hitting, more chores) (getting a ticket for bad driving)


negative punishment

take away a desirable stimulus to decrease probability of behavior happening again (removal of attention desired toy, previous rewards) (going to jail for bad driving- freedom gets taken away)


displaced aggression

a defense mechanism in which anger is redirected toward a person or object other than the one who provided the anger originally (bad day at work = yelling at family when you get home)


elicited aggression

people who are in a punitive environment (people want to escape/ avoid situation) start to aggress against themselves (prisoners fighting each other)


learned helplessness

condition of a human being or an animal in which it has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected


punishment as retribution

Punishment that is considered morally right and fully deserved (people going to jail)


punishment as deterrence

the use of punishment as a threat to prevent a behavior


How are punishment and negative reinforcement different?

punishment always suppresses future responses. negative reinforcements increate future behavior


How are negative punishment and extinction related?

They are related in the sense that they both deal with the taking away of something to decrease behavior. Extinction to take away reinforcer to decrease behavior, negative punishment is taking away of a appetite reinforcer to decrease behavior


effect on punishment: R-S contingency

When the response is reliably associated with the punishing event, the effectiveness of punishment is high


effect on punishment: R-S delay

It is best to administer the punisher immediately after the undesired behavior
Other behaviors occur during the delay interval and they may get suppressed rather than the target behavior


effect on punishment: intensity of punisher

stronger punishment, the more effective


effect on punishment: progressive punishment

the progression from mild to harsh punishment each time the behavior happens not effective. In most cases, the progressive punishment was never as effective as using the more intense punisher from the start


effect on punishment: reinforced and punished

for punishment to be effective it has to be out-compete the sources of reward, so reward alternate behaviors. Punish kid for standing up on chair but reward him when he sits still in a chair. Effective when the alternative behavior is incompatible with the unwanted behavior


effect on punishment: presence of alternative behaviors

people punished for unwanted behaviors suppress those behaviors more completely when reinforced for engaging in alternative behaviors than just receiving punishment alone, sometimes punishment is the reward


effect on punishment: behaviors that are highly motivated

when the motivation to engage in a behavior is strong, punishment is less effective


How do the one-process and two-process theories of punishment differ

One-process believes the only component of punishment is operant conditioning. Two-process believes there are two components, classical and operant


seven major problems with using punishing: Temporary effects

1. -Unless punishment is really severe, aversive consequences usual have only a temporary effect. Punishment works in short not in long run


seven major problems with using punishing: Escape and avoidance

2. - Natural reaction is to run away


seven major problems with using punishing: Aggression

3.- Leads to aggression


seven major problems with using punishing: Apathy

4.- Generalized suppression- effects of not only suppressing the target behavior, but also other behaviors in the same context


seven major problems with using punishing: Fixation

5.- Limits the range of behaviors that the organism is willing to perform


seven major problems with using punishing: Progressive punishment

6. -Starts with yelling, then slapping, then beating, then the hospital. Conditioned mechanism- gradual evolution of masochism


seven major problems with using punishing: Imitation

7.- It’s a negative model and leads to imitation on the recipient


What are seven major problems with using punishment for behavioral control

temporary effects, escape and avoidance, aggression, apathy, fixation, progressive punishment, imitation


What are six alternatives to aversive control

prevention, extinction, reinforce other behaviors, DRO, DRL,DRA


six alternatives to aversive control: prevention

Modify the environment to preclude the behavior (e.g., disconnect the keyboard, install a V-Chip, lock the medicine cabinet).


six alternatives to aversive control: extinction

Identify the reinforcing stimulus and remove it (e.g., time out)


six alternatives to aversive control: reinforce other behaviors

- Differential reinforcement of incompatible (DRI) behaviors (e.g., reinforce sitting at your desk, don't reinforce moving around; reinforce getting to meetings, or class, on time)


six alternatives to aversive control: DRO

Reinforce not responding for a period of time (e.g., remain motionless for five minutes)