Chapter 7, Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7, Exam #2 Deck (49)
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1

stimulus generalization

the tendency for a response learned to one specific stimulus to also occur for other, similar stimulus

2

response generalization

if a response of one type is blocked, then there is a tendency to make a similar response to the same stimulus

3

stimulus discrimination

when a response learned to one specific stimulus does not occur to other stimuli

4

response discrimination

learning not to make similar responses to the same stimulus

5

stimulus control

situations in which a behavior is triggered by the presence or absence of some stimulus

6

Discriminative stimuli (S+)-

any stimulus that signals whether a behavior will be reinforced or not reinforced

7

Excitatory gradient

in spence’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a generalized gradient showing an increased tendency to respond to the S+ or CS+ and stimuli resembling them

8

Inhibitory gradient

in spence’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a gradient showing decreased tendency to respond to the S- or CS- and stimuli resembling them

9

Peak shift

the tendency following discrimination training for the peak of responding in a generalization gradient to shift away from the S-

10

Basic transfer design

experiemental group-(learn task 1) (learn task 2) control group (rest) (learn task 2)q

11

positive transfer

experimental group performs better on task 2 than control group

12

Negative transfer

experimental group performs worse on task 2 than control group

13

Practice/Warm-up effects

we have to practice before we understand (Sc-Rd) non-specific

14

Learning to learn/Strategies-

earn by becoming familiar with how to do it (Sc-Rd) non-specific

15

Stimulus generalization ex

flirt with people with red hair/ flirt with people with auburn hair

16

response generalization ex

punch a classmate to kick a classamate

17

stimulus discrimination ex

go at a green light, stop at a red light

18

response discrimination ex

shifting gear, discriminating between a bad and good golf swing

19

What are the essential elements of Pavlov’s Brain Theory of discrimination?

The reinforced stimulus (S+) creates an area of excitation in the brain that produces a response (R). The non-reinforced stimulus (S-) creates an area of inhibition in the brain that inhibits responding and produces non responding (NR).
- Theory of the brain>>
- New stimuli that are similar to S+ excites areas in the brain close to the area for the S+ and produce the response.
- New stimuli that are similar to S- inhibit areas in the brain close to the area for the S- and fail to produce a response

20

What are the essential elements of Spence’s Gradient Theory of discrimination?

S+ creates a gradient of excitation (green), S- creates a gradient of inhibition (red). The tendency to respond to a new stimulus reflects the net difference between excitation and inhibition. 
- Theory of behavior

21

How does Spence’s Gradient Theory of discrimination differ from the Lashley-Wade theory?

The excitatory and inhibitory gradients depend on the prior experience of the learner

22

how does a researcher know when positive transfer has occurred

when the experimental group performs better than the control

23

how does a researcher know when negative transfer has occurred

when control group performs better that experimental

24

In a transfer task, what do the letters A-B stand for when applied to the first task? What do the letters C-D refer to when applied to the second task

This means the stimuli in the two tasks are not the same and the responses are not the same

25

Positive or negative transfer:
Response generalization

positive

26

Positive or negative transfer: Stimulus generalization

positive

27

Positive or negative transfer: Response integration

positive

28

Positive or negative transfer: Response interference

negative

29

Sa- Rb Sc- Rd

+
face-name/ event-date

30

Sa- Rb Sa- Rb’

++
cars-auto/cars- standard