Chapter 9, Exam #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9, Exam #3 Deck (64)
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1

internal mental processes

memory, abstract reasoning, critical, language representation, spatial representation, conceptual/analytical thought, creative thinking, problem solving

2

lateral thinking

thinking outside the box

3

anagrams

a problem solving technique that involves the generation of possible solutions and devising a solution plan

4

algorithm

problems (such as math) that guarantee success if the proper steps are followed

5

heuristic

a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently (mean end analysis, forming sub goals, working backward)

6

functional fixedness

the tendency to perceive an object in terms of only its most common use (hammer nails with hammer)

7

problem solving set

the inappropriate application of past problems solutions to new problems (mask doesnt mean bad guy, it means catcher)

8

satisficing

it is good to use a strategy that satisfies our needs and is sufficient to meet our demands

9

Habit family hierarchy

alternative behavior sequence that lead to the same goal
(1.squeeze through bars 2. Meow 3. Scratch
1.scratch 2. Squeeze 3. Meow)

10

insight

a sudden understanding of how all the elements in a problem fit together and form the solution (trial and error)

11

perceptual reconstructing

gestalt theory (phi phenomenon, insight, goal direction)

12

goal direction

the view that problem solving is not a mechanical process of building behaviors. Problem solving is a directional process guided by the nature of the problem

13

mean end analysis

break down problem into sub goals, sub problems, then solve each (travel plans)

14

search scan scheme

balance between searching for alternative solutions and scanning the consequences of a solution (game of chess)

15

working backward

start with a known solution and then follow steps backwards to the problem state (math problem)

16

planning process

reduce problem to a simpler form (anagram)

17

symbolic thought

language symbols, images, prototypes

18

creative fluency

the ability to generate many possible approaches or potential solutions to a problem

19

creative flexibility

the ability to recognize and give up on a bad idea

20

creative originality

the approaches or potential solutions to a problem

21

pragmatic creativity

the ability to think of useful, practical, worthwhile ideas and not fanciful or silly notions

22

divergent creativity

creative ideas that flourish and extend from a single source (unusual uses test)

23

convergent creativity

creative ideas that coalesce around a single point of origin (remote associates test)

24

attribute learning

identifying the relevant features or dimensions (classical conditioning has a CS, UCS, reflex, care are big, have wheels and move)

25

rule learning

discovering the rule that applies to combining the attributes

26

Affirmation rule

concept has a single attribute that is either present or absent (speed limit is 65)

27

conjunction rule

concept has two or more attributes and all must be present (car has wheels and doors)

28

disconjunction rule

concept has two or more attribute, either both can be present (road= asphalt or gravel, doctor = Ph.D or M.D. or both)

29

conditional rule

concept has two or more attributes, either or both can be present (speed zone- if sign is posted, then drive below posted speed; if no sign is posted the limit is 25)

30

reversal shift

the concept is unchanged. Only direction reverses (shape remains the same but color may change)