Chapter 3, Exam #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3, Exam #1 Deck (44)
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1

Unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without the need for any prior learning

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unconditioned response

a response that occurs innately and automatically to an unconditioned stimulus usually a reflexive action

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Conditioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response

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Conditioned response

the response in classical condition that becomes associated with a conditioned stimulus following a number of CS- UCS pairings

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Aversion (defensive) conditioning

a form of classical conditioning in which the unconditioned stimulus is emotionally negative

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Appetitive conditioning

a form of classical conditioning in which the unconditioned stimulus is emotionally positive

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Temporal conditioning

the unconditioned stimulus occurs at regular intervals. The organism will elicit the conditioned response at the points at which the USC tends to occur, but without an explicit conditioned stimulus

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Semantic conditioning

conditioned stimulus is a word or phrase

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Higher-order conditioning

a previously conditioned stimulus serves as a basis for conditioning a second stimulus

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Backward conditioning

everses the normal CS-UCS sequence so that the UCS occurs first, followed by the CS

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Simultaneous conditioning

the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus occur at the same time

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Trace conditioning

the conditioned stimulus is separated by a lengthy period of time from the unconditioned stimulus and ends prior to the start of the UCS

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Delayed conditioning

begins with the presence of the conditioned stimulus followed after a long delay by the occurrence of an unconditioned stimulus. The CS and the UCS overlap in time

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Overshadowing

procedure that involves presenting two conditioned stimuli together and following this compound stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. If one of the CS is more intense then that other, only the CS with the higher intensity will be conditioned
Blocking- procedure that begins with conditioning a stimulus to an unconditioned

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Acquisition

a term used to describe how learned responses are strengthened and/or changed over time or trials

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Blocking

procedure that begins with conditioning a stimulus to an unconditioned stimulus. Then CS1 is combined with another conditioned stimulus (CS2) and the two stimuli together are conditioned to the UCS. Later when CS2 is tested alone, it fails to produce a response

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Latent inhibition

a potential conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly alone, without and unconditioned stimulus, and then is resistant to later conditioning when paired with UCS

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Sensory preconditioning

involves presenting two conditioned stimuli together without an unconditioned stimulus. Then, one of the conditioned stimuli is presented with a UCS and is conditioned to elicit the CR, even though it was never associated with the UCS

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Counter conditioning

he procedure used to replace one conditioned response with another. Can be used with aversive conditioning, as when a conditioned stimulus is paired with a aversive UCS. Can also be used with appetite conditioning as when a phobia is replaced with the fondness of an animal

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Generalization gradient

a response occurs not only to the learned stimulus, but also to other similar stimuli. The response to the similar stimuli declines in strength as the similarity of the stimuli decreases

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Generalization decrement

the decrease in response strength when an animal generalizes a response from one stimulus to another, similar to stimulus

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Experimental neurosis

a behavior (nervous breakdown) that occurs when an animal is forced to make a very difficult discrimination between a CS+ and a CS-

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Pseudoconditioning

the elicitation of a response by a previously neutral stimulus. This occurs after a series of exposure to another conditioned stimulus. After experiencing closing their eyes after the administration of a bright light source, a subject is likely to squint after a loud sound

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Systematic desensitization

a technique used by behavioral therapist to treat phobias. It is a variation on counterconditioning that introduced a fear-inducing stimulus by presenting it in a less fearful way, then gradually reintroducing it in a series of more fearful conditions

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Number of CS-UCS pairings

the more pairings, the stronger the condition

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CS and UCS intensity

the more intense the stimulus, the faster the progression of acquisition and the stronger the CR strength

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Inter-trial interval

time between each CS-UCS pairing is better over time

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Inter-stimulus (CS-UCS) interval

time between CS and UCS is better in close time

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A middle eastern dictator has successfully conditioned the citizens to be fearful when they see the American flag

Aversion (Defensive)

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mark has a shoe fetish. The sight of shoes evokes pleasant sexaal sensations for him

Appetitive