Chapter 1, Exam #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1, Exam #1 Deck (33)
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the increase in intensity of a reflex response due to frequent exposure (becoming more sensitive to gunfire in a high crime area)



simple involuntary response produced by a specific stimuli (puff of air in eye makes you blink


voluntary response

responses that are primarily controlled by the organism instead of by an unconditioned stimulus and mediated by the somatic nervous system


sensory receptors

proximal stimulus (touch pain vision)


selective attention

we see what captures our attention, interests us, or what we cannot avoid


Central nervous system

includes the brain and spinal cord, stores and processes info that it receives from the environment and other parts of the body then sends messages to other parts of the body


Somatic nervous system

type of peripheral nervous system. controls voluntary responses (muscles tendons ligaments)


parasympathetic nervous system

component of the autonomic nervous system that controls the body when the organism is in a quiet, restful state (peace)



the lowering of the intensity of a reflex response due to repeated stimulation (not acting as strongly to needles if diabetic)


modal action (fixed action) pattern

one of several types of involuntary responses that is characterized by being an interrelated set of actions involving the whole animal (not just the reaction of part of the animal) specific to a given species, fixed and inflexible, and produced by a single (releasing) stimulus (spider spinning a web)


involuntary respons

a variety of responses types that are usually produced by a limited set of stimuli and primarily mediated by the autonomic nervous system (reflex, instinct)


visual adaption

the process by which the visual system alters its operating properties in response to changes in the environment


perceptual set

auditory, haptic, orientation, savory, and visual


peripheral nervous system

the part of the nervous system that extends out into the peripheral parts of the body


autonomic nervous system

type of peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses (breathing, heart rate, sweating)


sympathetic nervous system

component of the autonomic nervous system that controls the body when the organism is in a state of stress or excitement ( dear, anger)


3 major domains of psychology

emotion, cognition, behavior


The basic definition of learning

a hypothetical process which produces a relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or emotion as a result of experience


what is stimulus?

energy that contacts a sensory organ (eye, ear, skin) and produces a physiological or behavioral reaction in an organism


what is the difference between a stimulus and a response?

a stimulus is a change in an organisms surroundings which causes it to respond. a response is an organisms reaction to a specific stimulus


what is the difference between sensation and perception?

sensation is physical energy actioning on a sense organ and perception gives meaning to a sensory input


What are the major sensory receptors?

touch pain and vision


Distal, proximal, and perceived stimulus

Distal stimulus- the actual object being perceived
Proximal stimulus- the “photo” of stimulus to eyes, things as they are
Perceived stimulus- the perception that your mind creates


Why doesn’t perception accurately reflect the real-world stimulus environment?

Stimulus filtering - distal stimuli that never reach our sensory equipment (color)

Selective perception - we only se and hear what captures our attention, what interests us, or what we can't avoid

Illusions - distorted reality
Hallucinations - seeing things that are not there at all


How does expectation and hypnosis alter our perception of pain?

by cutting out outside cues (left hand numb) similar to expectations, because if you expect it to hurt in your right hand it will, but because the left is “numb” you wont


Haptics system

exploratory system, recognizing objects through touch, combination of sensation and hand position


Auditory system

frequency, amplitude, and ability to locate source of sound


Savory system

(gustatory and olfactory) taste and smell, consume good things and not bad things


Orientation system

finding your way around and recognizing familiar surroundings


Visual system

humans are very visual and would hate to lose their sight