Flashcards in Chapter 10, Exam #3 Deck (39)
the process of imitating or copying the behavior of another animal that may lead to learning
a variation on the term observational learning that stresses that an animal learns by observing another animal getting reinforced or punished for its actions
rewards derived from external sources; tangible rewards (money, food)
rewards derived from internal sources; tangible, self generated rewards (task mastery, creative endeavors)
over justification effect
the motivation to perform a behavior diminishes when an extrinsic reward is imposed on a behavior that was previously reinforced by an intrinsic reward
a condition characterized by behavior that is self defeating and counterproductive, brought on by repeated experience of failure and the inability to act
process engaged in by most humans in which their actions are reinforced by stimuli that are self generated
a belief that one has the ability to master task and be successful at new challenges
rule of reciprocity
tendency in which people have a propensity to balance the receiving of factors from others with giving factors in return
rule of commitment
tendency in which people have a propensity to honor promise and commitments
door in the face effect
phenomenon in which people are likely to agree to a small request if they have just refused a large request
foot in the door effect
phenomenon that people are more likely to agree to a larger request if they have already agreed to a smaller request
decision making heuristic that bases a judgment on what first comes to mind; what is mentally available
judgments are made based on the apparent connection between 2 events
making a decision based on knowing the outcome. the belief that an event is more predictable after we know the result than before the result becomes known
passive learning that occurs without performance. ex: cognitive map (riding through a maze in a cart) learning is demonstrated when performance is rewarded
a form of mental representation of the spatial layout of the environment that an animal could use to navigate
thinking about thinking
what three entities form the foundation for social learning?
person environment behavior
explain what is meant by "performance without learning"
a person can perform the same action as another (via modeling or imitation) without necessarily learning from the model
explain what is meant by "learning without performance"
a person can learn from a model by not imitate the model (a parent raises their child opposite of how they were raised)
what is generalized imitation?
General rule that modeling is good, even if we don't see the benefits. For example, children imitating their parents.
why do learning researchers think that vicarious classical conditioning is doubtful?
simple conditioning- controlled stimulus with fearful uncontrolled stimulus and that produces fear in the observer. it transfers of feelings and now external stimulus
what are some examples of vicarious operant conditioning?
watching someone perform an action that produces a reward and leads to fast learning (children can learn to perform acts by observing adult models who get reinforced for these acts)
according to Bandura's theory, what are 4 cognitive processes that underlie and govern observational learning? How would each apply to trying to learn the tango?
Attention: the observers perceptual capabilities level of arousal stimulus preferences
Retention: the observers cognitive skills and memory accuracy
motor reproduction: the observers attributes, physical capabilities, and acquired motor skills
motivation: the observers intrinsic motivation and reward preferences as well as their social needs
Consequences of the model's behavior effect on observational learning
rewards and punishments delivered to the model influence the observer learning. For example, if your brother for punished for something you learn not to do it.
Consequences of the observer's behavior effect on observational learning
if the consequences are different for observer than for model, consequences are more powerful. For example, your brother does drugs than you do drugs and your parents get mad at you for it because they know you should have learned from you brother.
Attractiveness of the model effect on observational learning
most influential models are attractive.
Like ability of the model effect on observational learning
More influential, more likeable