Chapter 12, Exam #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12, Exam #3 Deck (28)
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1

evolution

changes in species over time, and natural selection is the mechanism that allows species to adapt to these changes

2

teleology

the belief that there is a design and purpose in nature and that species evolve toward higher forms

3

natural selection

how changes in the environment or genes make certain characteristics of a species more or less useful for survival

4

ontogeny

developmental history of an individual

5

nature

inherited from our parents

6

nurture

our encounters with the environment

7

selective breeding

we identify a trait in an animal and we breed pairs of animals with those traits in common

8

instinctive drift

teaching a behavior to an animal and thinking that they have the behavior down but then an instinct inside them makes them resistant to learning the new behavior

9

imprinting

the tenndency of some animals, particularly birds, to follow the first moving object they see after birth

10

preparedness

idea that organisms are genetically disposed to learn some things and not others

11

protodog

the species that the wolf evolved into and closely resembles dogs today

12

flight distance

when dogs percieve something as fearful its when they start to run and the distance they do so. the shorter the flight distance the more likely you are to survive

13

how do teleology and natural selection differ as explanations of evolutionary change?

teleology believes there is a purpose in nature in which species evolve to a higher form, where natural selection believes species survive environmental changes due to genes that are more successful

14

how are black moths and dark skinned humans explained by natural selection

the moths are darker colors survived because they could blend in better with trees. the darker skin is essential for survival when living close to the equator

15

how is natural selection differnt from learning?

natural selection describes how whole species adapt and change. the learning process is also about change, but changes in behavior, though pattern and emotional reactions. learning is at an individual level rather than at the species level

16

what do selective breeding experiments tell us about genetic effects on learning

learning has a genetic component and can be strengthened by selective breeding

17

When we compare the IQs of identical twins reared together versus identical twins reared apart, what do we find? What does this tell us about the genetic influences on learning?

Identical twins are likely to have similar IQ scores, whether or not they are raised together. That means there is a huge genetic component to learning

18

Why do adopted children have IQs that more closely match their biological parents rather than their adoptive parents? What does this finding tell us about the genetic component to learning

The genetic component is stronger than the biological component when referring to learning

19

what are some of the prenatal and postnatal conditions that tend to reduce learning ability

pre: neurotoxins, disease, and malnutrition
post: neurotoxins and head injuries

20

give some examples of learned behaviors in animals and children that seem to reveal a critical period. what do these behaviors suggest about the relationship between nature and nurture

children have brains that are biologically dispositional to learn, but there is a critical period in which it takes place. human maternal behavior and social behavior in dogs

21

what is the relationship between brain capacity and primate evolution from the early protohumans to modern humans

Brain capacity increased with the evolution of primates. As the primates evolved so did the size of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (frontal lobe: organization, planning) (temporal lobe: language)

22

Why do theorists think that the use of tools is such an important milestone in the evolution of modern humans? What events probably prepared the way for tool use

It's a milestone because it gave humans a big survival advantage. Standing erect and loss of body hair definitely aided in the survival advantage, humans were becoming more intelligent

23

What is the presumed relationship between social cooperation and intelligence? How do researchers think that social cooperation evolved in the human species?

-Social cooperation in terms of group hunting, required language, use of tools, which both require intelligence.
-Researchers believed it evolved because the ones without language, knowledge about tools, and lastly intelligence did not live to procreate, so they died off

24

What is it about the evolution of language that seems to parallel language acquisition in children

Both start off with forms of vocalization which evolved in to signs and signals. Those turned into holophrastic signs, one word sentences. They equally grew from one simple step to the next, with the help of brain capacity

25

Many philosophers believe that humans are uniquely different from other animals. What can humans do that other animals cannot

Humans have the ability to contemplate god and create religion

26

What do the Belyav experiments on foxes in Siberia suggest about the possible evolution of the dog

That when you selectively breed an animal for their tameness and their coloring their whole genetic make up is affected and also that the evolution from wolves to dogs could have taken place quickly

27

How did the wolf evolve into the modern dog according to evolutionary scientists

It's skull, brain and body become smaller, it's snout shorter, and its teeth changed from killing to non-killing

28

How does evolution theory explain the human penchant for myth, ritual, and religion

People who engaged in activities surrounding myth ritual and religion would be healthier and stronger, which would mean they are more likely to survive. (ex: meditation calms the autonomic nervous system, reduces stress, and promotes good health.)