Chapter 8, Exam #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8, Exam #3 Deck (55)
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Black box

the idea that the mind is either nonexistent or unknowable. what happens in the mind is a black box (dark place) that cannot be opened or understood and should not be the subject of scientific investigation


information processing

the idea that the mind acts like a computer. information arrives from the enviornment (input), is processed by mental activities (process), and then fed back out into the environment (output)



the loss of info from memory over time, or the decline in the strength of a response following a period without practice


Proactive interference (PI)

forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material (1 interferes with 2)


Proactive facilitation (PF)

increased ability to learn new information due to the recall of old information (1 helps with 2)


Retroactive interference (RI)

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information (2 interferes with 1)


Retroactive facilitation (RF)

increased comprehension of previously of previously learned information due to the acquisition of new information (2 helps wirth 1)


Sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. Visual (iconic) auditory (echoic)


Short term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly
brief memory- 30-60 sec
limited capacity- chunks (7+/-2)
fragile- easy to obliterate
active- memories get transformed and manipulated


iconic storage

a very brief visual memory that acts as a buffer and allows people to hold visual info for a short period of time (tv screen turning black or following a flashlight)


echoic storage

a very brief auditory memory that acts as a buffer and allows people to hold auditory information (the sound of a spoken word) for 2-4 seconds


flashbulb memory

very powerful episodic memory resulting from extremely surprising, emotionally arousing, and personally important events (person remembering meeting her biological mom)


procedural memory

long term memory, of how to perform different actions and skills (how to do certain things)


semantic memory

long term memory, that stores general knowledge, including the meaning of words and concepts (what you had for breakfast yesterday)


episodic memory

long term memory, are related to specific events and the personal experiences of the learner (remembering last thanksgiving with your grandma)


implicit memory

long term memory, is not consciously avaliable to the person and exists below the level of awareness (remembering your mothers maiden name)


primary effect

a characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good


recency effect

a characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items in a list


state dependent learning

refers to the concept that what a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state


cue dependent learning (encoding specificity)

study while chewing gum and take a test while chewing gum



memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices (ROY G BIV)


prompts (prompted recall)

cued, fill in the blank, aided recall of a crime


method of loci system

attach words or phrases to a word to help remember


peg word system

associating an idea with a peg word (one is bun, two is a shoe)


keyword system

forming of interactive images that link a sound and meaning of a foreign word to the sound and meaning of a familiar word



practicing material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error


free recall

memory assessment technique that acquires the retrieval of info from memory without any aids such as cues, prompts, or hints (taking SAT without notes)


relearning (savings)

a measure of explicit memory that involves assessing how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten



a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (a multiple choice test)


delayed matching to sample

memory assessment technique in which an animal is shown a stimulus, and then after a delay, it must select which of several other stimuli matches the first the first stimuli