Flashcards in Chapter 22 Review Sheet Deck (44)
Galileo's findings and punishment by the Catholic Church
Galileo was an Italian scientist who made discoveries about the ROUGH SURFACE OF PLANETS, supported HELIOCENTRIC theory, and INVENTED the FIRST TELESCOPE.
++ He was one of the first to share his work publicly.
+++Church attacked his findings FEARING it would WEAKEN FAITH of believers.
+++ Pope forced him to SAY HIS FINDINGS WERE FALSE.
Importance of new instruments like the microscope and telescope
Scientists discovered the MICROSCOPE, BAROMETER, and THERMOMETER. These instruments allowed scientists to make better (more accurate) observations and NEW DISCOVERIES.
+++ Knowledge of HUMAN ANATOMY and the first VACCINATION came about.
Concept of applying reason and logic to the enlightenment (Gov't, society, etc)
Power of individuals to solve problems; Age of reason
Hobbes & Locke: (Social Contract vs. Natural Rights)
-Hobbes (social contract) all humans basically selfish and wicked; need governments to keep order. People had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler= gained law and order. social contract = where people create a government / impose order and demand obedience
-Locke more positive view of humans; people learn from experience and improve themselves. Have natural ability to govern their own affairs /all people are born free and equal with 3 natural rights ( life / liberty / property); purpose of the government is to protect these rights
The 5 core concepts of the Enlightenment philosophes.
5 Concepts that formed the core beliefs of the philosopher beliefs.
-Reason - you can arrive at truth through logic thinking and process
-Liberty - freedom of speech, religion
-Happiness - search for happiness in this life not the hereafter
-Nature - what is natural is good
-Progress - we can do better with society (gov’t, social issues)
Basic ideas of Montisquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau
Rousseau - The Social Contract
-He believed in INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM and thought that the NOBILITY should be ABOLISHED.
Montesquieu - Spirit of Laws
- He believed in the SEPARATION OF STATE POWERS and CHECKS & BALANCES.
Voltaire - Freedom of Speech
-He believed in FREEDOM OF RELIGION & SPEECH. He was jailed for his comments.
Wollstonecraft's new view of women, women's rights.
Wollstonecraft's views could be viewed as the beginning of the women's rights movement. She encouraged women to enter male-dominated fields like medicine and politics. She said that women needed an education to be virtuous and useful.
Legacy of the Enlightenment (progress, secularism, importance of individual)
There are 3 main lasting effects of the Enlightenment on society.
1) Progress - HUMAN REASON can SOLVE PROBLEMS.
2) Secular (non-religious) outlook
3) Individualism - Use your own reason, not what your tradition says, to judge right and wrong. MADE A DIFFERENCE.
Importance of Diderot's Encyclopedia
Diderot created a large set of articles and essays called the Encyclopedia beginning in 1751. Works from many of the leading scholars were published for review in the volumes. Church censors banned the book saying that it fostered corruption & unbelief. This did not stop the book from being published.
Difference between Baroque and Neoclassical styles.
Baroque style was pre-Enlightment - it was ORNATE (almost gaudy).
Neoclassical style was during the Enlightment and it was more simple and elegant - borrowing from classical Greek & Roman.
Enlightened despots (who, where, what)
monarchs that embraced new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit. "Absolute ruler"
-supported philosophers ideas but they also had no intention of giving up power (2) desires: wanted to make their countries stronger and their own rule more effective
Influences of the Enlightenment of the American Revolution/government.
colonial leaders decided to break away from their ruling country and find an independent republic.
Why was the Catholic Church so resistant to the ideas of the Scientific Revolution. Why did they feel threatened, and what steps did they take to combat it? Finally, how successful were they in their efforts
-question authority and traditions
-if proven wrong, you could lose credibility
-most knowledge up to that point came from the Bible
-question Bible, question God.
-could weaken peoples faith