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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (56):
1

Adduction

Movement of a limb toward midline of body

2

Adhesion

A bond of fibrous that holds structures together abnormally

3

Ataxia

Lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement

4

Atonic

Lacking normal muscle tone or strength

5

Bradykinesia

Extreme slowness in movement

6

Atrophy

Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures caused by pathology/disuse over long period of time

7

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Swelling that creates pressure in the median nerve as it passes thru the carpal tunnel

8

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Disorder of unknown cause affecting many body systems w symptoms of similar to those of fibromyalgia syndrome

9

Circumduction

Circular movement at far end of a limb

10

Contracture

Permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced w fibrous ones

11

Dorsiflexion

Movement that bends foot upward at ankle

12

Dyskinesia

Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement

13

Electromyography

Diagnostic test tht measures electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

14

Electroneuromyography

Tests and records neurmuscular activity by electric stimulation of nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from muscle

15

Epicondylitis

Inflammation of tissues surrounding elbow

16

Ergonomics

Study of human factors tht affect the design and operation of tools in the work environment

17

Exercise physiologist

Specialist who works under supervision of a physician to develop, implement, coordinate

18

Fasciitis

Inflammation of a fascia

19

Fibromyalgia

Debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, muscle, joint or bone pain, or others

20

Ganglion cyst

Harmless fluid filled swelling that occurs most commonly on outer surface of wrist

21

Heel spur

Calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to heel

22

Hemiparesis

Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of body

23

Hemiplegia

Total paralysis affecting one side of body

24

Hyperkinesia

Abnormally increased muscle function or activity

25

Hypertonia

Na

26

Impingement syndrome

Inflammation of tendons tht get caught in narrow space between bones within shoulder joint

27

Intermittent claudication

Pain in leg muscles tht occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

28

Muscular dystrophy

Group of more than thirty genetic diseases tht include progressive weakness and degeneration if skeletal muscles w/o affecting nervous system

29

Myasthenia gravis

Chronic autoimmune disorder tht affects neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

30

Myocele

Herniation of muscle substance thru a tear in the fascia surrounding it

31

Myoclonus

Sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle group or muscles

32

Myofascial

Specialized sift tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, carpal tunnel...

33

Myolysis

Degeneration of muscle tissue

34

Myoparesis

Weakness or slight muscular paralysis

35

Myorrhaphy

Surgical suturing of a muscle

36

Myotonia

Na

37

Nocturnal myoclonus

Jerking of limbs tht can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

38

Oblique

Slanted or at an angle

39

Paralysis

Loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movement in muscle thru disease/injury to its nerve supply

40

Paraplegia

Paralysis of both legs and lower part of body

41

Physiatrist

Physician who specializes in physical medicine/rehab w focus of restoring function

42

Plantar fasciitis

Inflammation of plantar fascia causing foot or heel pain when walking or running

43

Polymyositis

Muscle disease characterized by simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of body

44

Pronation

Act of rotating arm/leg so palm/sole is turned downward/backward

45

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities

46

Sarcopenia

Loss of muscle mass, strength, and function tht comes w aging

47

Shin splint

Pain caused by muscle tearing away from tibia

48

Singultus

Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes characteristic hiccup sound w each spasm

49

Spasmodic torticollic

Stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of neck muscles that pull head toward affected side

50

Sphinctor

Ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

51

Sprain

Injury to a joint tht usually involves a wrenched or torn ligament

52

Tenodesis

Surgical suturing of end of a tendon to bone

53

Tendynia

Na

54

Tenolysis

Release of a tendon from adhesions

55

Tenorrhaphy

Surgical suturing of the divided ends of a tendon

56

Abduction

Movement of a limb away from midline of body