Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
0

​2.​Hard water contains high levels of minerals such as
a.
iron and zinc.
b.
lead and sulfur.
c.
sodium and potassium.
d.
calcium and magnesium.

D

1

​1.​If a woman who drinks a cup of decaffeinated coffee in the morning, a cup of fruit juice with lunch, 6 cups of water throughout the day and a cup of tea at bedtime, her fluid intake would be considered
a.
dangerously low.
b.
below optimal.
c.
optimal.
d.
too high.

C

2

​3.​Interstitial fluid is the body fluid
a.
within the cells.
b.
outside the cells.
c.
between the cells.
d.
in the bloodstream.

C

3

​4.​Within the body, water helps to
a.
dissolve lipids.
b.
store excess energy.
c.
insulate nerve fibers.
d.
regulate body temperature.

D

4

​5.​Maintenance of physiologic equilibrium within the body is known as
a.
hemostasis.
b.
homeostasis.
c.
water balance.
d.
metabolic regulation.

B

5

​6.​The hormone that causes the body to decrease sodium excretion is called
a.
adrenaline.
b.
aldosterone.
c.
alanine.
d.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

B

6

​7.​The primary intracellular electrolyte is
a.
sodium.
b.
calcium.
c.
potassium.
d.
magnesium.

C

7

​8.​In an older adult who is usually very alert, disorientation may be a sign of
a.
iron deficiency.
b.
malnutrition.
c.
edema.
d.
dehydration.

D

8

​9.​Edema may be caused by inadequate intake of
a.
protein.
b.
sodium.
c.
chloride.
d.
potassium.

A

9

​10.​The term bioavailability means the
a.
total amount of a mineral in a food.
b.
ratio of free to bound mineral in a food.
c.
amount of a mineral that is excreted by the body.
d.
amount of a mineral that can be absorbed by the body from a food.

D

10

​11.​Daily dietary calcium intake affects
a.
body temperature.
b.
muscular strength.
c.
bone calcium levels.
d.
blood calcium levels.

C

11

​12.​Beverages that contain substances that decrease absorption of calcium include
a.
tea.
b.
milk.
c.
orange juice.
d.
bottled water.

A

12

​13.​Lifestyle changes that may help prevent development of osteoporosis include
a.
reducing intake of animal protein.
b.
eating a piece of fruit with lunch every day.
c.
taking a daily multivitamin supplement.
d.
taking a 30 minute walk most days.

D

13

​14.​An example of a food high in phosphorus is
a.
rice.
b.
carrot.
c.
cheese.
d.
banana.

C

14

​15.​A good source of calcium for someone who follows a strict vegetarian (vegan) diet would be
a.
coconut milk.
b.
a bean burrito.
c.
skim milk.
d.
pasta salad.

B

15

​16.​Magnesium deficiency may occur in association with
a.
lactation.
b.
type 1 diabetes.
c.
excessive vomiting and diarrhea.
d.
dehydration attributable to heat exposure.

C

16

​17.​Of the following, the food choice that contains the least sodium is
a.
cornbread.
b.
corn tortilla.
c.
corn on the cob.
d.
buttered popcorn.

C

17

​18.​A sodium intake of 2100 mg daily of a healthy adult would be considered
a.
below the Adequate Intake (AI).
b.
within the recommended range.
c.
below the maximum recommended level.
d.
above the maximum recommended level.

C

18

​19.​Signs of potassium deficiency include
a.
excessive thirst and urination.
b.
muscle weakness and confusion.
c.
shortness of breath and dizziness.
d.
twitching of muscles and convulsions.

B

19

​20.​Foods that contain chloride usually also contain
a.
sodium.
b.
calcium.
c.
potassium.
d.
magnesium.

A

20

​21.​Young women require more dietary iron than young men
a.
because they absorb iron less efficiently.
b.
to compensate for their lower muscle mass.
c.
to replace blood losses during menstruation.
d.
because they recycle hemoglobin more rapidly.

C

21

​22.​The form of dietary iron that is absorbed most easily is
a.
heme iron.
b.
nonheme iron.
c.
free iron.
d.
supplemental iron.

A

22

​23.​The effects of iron deficiency are caused by
a.
increased blood pressure.
b.
increased risk of blood clotting.
c.
decreased ability of the blood to transport oxygen.
d.
decreased numbers of muscle fibers and brain cells.

C

23

​24.​Hemosiderosis, storage of too much iron in the body, is most likely to occur in
a.
a man who drinks 5 or more alcoholic beverages every night.
b.
an adolescent who drinks 4 or more soft drinks daily.
c.
a toddler who prefers drinking milk to eating meals.
d.
a pregnant woman who takes iron supplements.

A

24

​25.​In countries where the staple food source is unleavened bread made from whole grains, zinc deficiency may be prevented by
a.
eating refined grains.
b.
making breads with yeast.
c.
eating fortified grains.
d.
soaking grains before making bread.

B

25

​26.​The main source of iodine in the United States is
a.
seafood.
b.
dairy products.
c.
fortified table salt.
d.
residues of cleaning products.

C

26

​27.​Deficiency of iodine reduces thyroxine production, which causes
a.
microcytic anemia.
b.
fever and dehydration.
c.
delayed wound healing.
d.
lethargy and weight gain.

D

27

​28.​Dietary fluoride is important to
a.
decrease staining of teeth.
b.
decrease sensitivity of teeth.
c.
stimulate production of saliva.
d.
increase the strength of tooth enamel.

D

28

​29.​In the United States, low intake of selenium may be associated with increased risk of
a.
cancer.
b.
osteoporosis.
c.
hypertension.
d.
type 2 diabetes.

A

29

​30.​Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder that causes excessive accumulation of
a.
iron.
b.
zinc.
c.
copper.
d.
chromium.

C

30

​31.​A good dietary source of chromium is
a.
pasta.
b.
grapes.
c.
oatmeal.
d.
cauliflower.

C

31

​32.​Apart from lowering dietary sodium intake, dietary changes that may help decrease high blood pressure include
a.
decreasing intake of dairy products.
b.
increasing intake of vegetable protein.
c.
increasing intake of calcium and magnesium.
d.
replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.

C

32

​33.​A wife who blames her high blood pressure on her husband’s preference for salty foods is an example of
a.
denial.
b.
chaining.
c.
reframing.
d.
projection.

D