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​1.​Protein is needed by the body because it provides
a.
energy.
b.
peptides.
c.
fatty acids.
d.
amino acids.

A

1

​2.​The amount of protein that most Americans eat is
a.
less than we need.
b.
more than we need.
c.
about the amount we need.
d.
very different from day to day.

B

2

​3.​In addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, amino acids also contain
a.
nitrogen.
b.
potassium.
c.
iron.
d.
sodium.

A

3

​4.​Nine of the 20 amino acids are considered essential because they
a.
contain sulfur.
b.
are found only in animal proteins.
c.
cannot be manufactured by the body.
d.
are the only amino acids used to make body proteins.

C

4

​5.​Nonessential amino acids can be made by the liver using
a.
glucose and urea.
b.
other amino acids.
c.
fatty acids and glycerol.
d.
enzymes and hormones.

B

5

​6.​The secondary structure of proteins refers to the
a.
combination of polypeptide chains.
b.
sequence of amino acids in the chain.
c.
strong bonds between loops of the chain.
d.
straight, folded, or coiled shape of the amino acid chain.

D

6

​7.​A client may be in a danger of their body proteins becoming denatured if they have a
a.
drug overdose.
b.
very high fever.
c.
vitamin deficiency.
d.
high stress level.

B

7

​8.​The enzyme that begins digestion of protein in the stomach is
a.
pepsin.
b.
renin.
c.
trypsin.
d.
protease.

A

8

​9.​Loss of muscle tissue during recovery from a serious accident is an example of
a.
anabolism.
b.
catabolism.
c.
deamination.
d.
metabolism.

B

9

​10.​The vitamin that is essential for absorption of amino acids is
a.
vitamin B6.
b.
folate.
c.
vitamin A.
d.
vitamin E.

A

10

​11.​An example of a situation in which positive nitrogen balance occurs is
a.
aging.
b.
infection.
c.
starvation.
d.
pregnancy.

D

11

​12.​The main structural protein found in connective tissues, bone, and teeth is called
a.
fibrin.
b.
albumin.
c.
collagen.
d.
hemoglobin.

C

12

​13.​Proteins that are produced by the immune system in response to specific foreign viruses and bacteria are called
a.
hormones.
b.
antibodies.
c.
lipoproteins.
d.
enzymes.

B

13

​14.​An important role of proteins in the body includes
a.
temperature regulation.
b.
acid-base balance.
c.
conduction of nerve impulses.
d.
elimination of waste products.

B

14

​15.​The protein that carries oxygen in muscles is called
a.
ferritin.
b.
oxyglobin.
c.
myoglobin.
d.
hemoglobin.

C

15

​16.​Phenylketonuria is caused by
a.
excessive intake of phenylalanine.
b.
failure to break down excess phenylalanine.
c.
inadequate intake of phenylalanine during pregnancy.
d.
inability to digest proteins that contain phenylalanine.

B

16

​17.​An example of a food that contains complete protein is
a.
oatmeal.
b.
lentil soup.
c.
peanut butter.
d.
hard-boiled egg.

D

17

​18.​Incomplete protein
a.
has no nutritional value in the diet.
b.
is mostly found in foods of animal origin.
c.
has been denatured by contact with heat, acid, or alkali.
d.
contains inadequate amounts of one or more essential amino acids.

D

18

​19.​An example of a meal that contains complementary proteins is
a.
pasta and tomato sauce.
b.
split pea soup with crackers.
c.
oatmeal and buttered toast.
d.
fruit yogurt with strawberries.

B

19

​20.​A measurement of the quality of food protein based on the amount that is retained in the body after digestion, absorption, and excretion is
a.
biologic value.
b.
amino acid score.
c.
protein efficiency ratio.
d.
urinary urea excretion.

A

20

​21.​Men generally require more protein than women because they
a.
are more active.
b.
have more lean body mass.
c.
have a higher metabolic rate.
d.
use dietary protein less efficiently.

B

21

​22.​The protein needs of athletes are
a.
lower than those of nonathletes.
b.
the same as those of nonathletes.
c.
higher than those of nonathletes.
d.
currently being determined by researchers.

C

22

​23.​The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for a healthy adult who weighs 60 kg is _____ g/day.
a.
36
b.
48
c.
60
d.
72

B

23

​24.​A vegan diet contains
a.
plant foods only.
b.
mostly raw foods.
c.
plant foods plus eggs.
d.
plant foods plus fish.

A

24

​25.​Strict vegan diets may be associated with low intakes of
a.
vitamins A and D.
b.
vitamins B12 and D.
c.
folate and vitamin C.
d.
vitamin E and selenium.

B

25

​26.​A Jew who follows a strict kosher diet would not eat
a.
macaroni and cheese.
b.
a cheeseburger and fries.
c.
a bean and cheese burrito.
d.
roast beef with mashed potatoes.

B

26

​27.​An appropriate size serving of meat, poultry, or fish is about the size of
a.
your fist.
b.
a dollar bill.
c.
the palm of your hand.
d.
one fourth of a dinner plate.

C

27

​28.​Kwashiorkor is a type of malnutrition usually caused by
a.
intake of incomplete protein sources.
b.
excessive intakes of protein and fluid.
c.
inadequate intakes of protein and energy.
d.
inadequate protein intake with adequate energy intake.

D

28

​29.​Examples of individuals who may have an increased risk of malnutrition include
a.
inactive middle-aged men.
b.
sleep-deprived adolescents.
c.
children with chronic infections.
d.
breast-fed infants.

C

29

​30.​An example of the lifestyle habit of “chaining” is
a.
gradually reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.
b.
eating a piece of fruit with a sandwich every lunchtime.
c.
keeping a record of all food and beverages eaten.
d.
involving all family members in choosing healthy foods.

B