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​1.​A common disorder in patients who abuse alcohol is
a.
diarrhea.
b.
fatty liver.
c.
cholecystitis.
d.
viral hepatitis.

B

1

​2.​It is possible to reverse fatty infiltration of the liver by
a.
losing weight.
b.
reducing fat intake.
c.
increasing protein intake.
d.
removing the underlying cause.

D

2

​3.​A type of hepatitis that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route is hepatitis
a.A.
b.B.
c.C.
d.D.

A

3

​4.​A symptom that is common to all types of hepatitis is
a.
jaundice.
b.
headache.
c.
dehydration.
d.
muscle aches.

A

4

​5.​The recommended diet for patients with hepatitis is a well-balanced diet with
a.
low protein content.
b.
supplemental electrolytes.
c.
no alcoholic beverages.
d.
limited amounts of alcohol.

C

5


​6.​An individual may be at risk for hepatitis E if they travel to India and eat
a.
curried shrimp.
b.
fresh fruit salad.
c.
Tandoori chicken.
d.
cooked foods from street vendors.

B

6

​7.​For patients with hepatitis, a significant barrier to maintaining an adequate intake of kcals is
a.
malabsorption.
b.
fat intolerance.
c.
loss of appetite.
d.
increased metabolic rate.

C

7

​8.​In cirrhosis of the liver, liver cells
a.
decrease in number and increase in size.
b.
are displaced by growth of tumors.
c.
become disconnected because of breakdown of connective tissue.
d.
are replaced by accumulations of fibrous connective tissue and fat.

D

8

​9.​A low-fiber, soft diet is recommended for patients with
a.
hepatitis A.
b.
cholelithiasis.
c.
esophageal varices.
d.
hepatic encephalopathy.

C

9

​10.​Patients with ascites should restrict their intake of
a.
protein.
b.
sodium.
c.
dietary fiber.
d.
saturated fat.

B

10

​11.​If a patient with cirrhosis of the liver becomes confused and apathetic, he or she may be developing
a.
fatty liver.
b.
hepatitis D.
c.
secondary depression.
d.
hepatic encephalopathy.

D

11

​12.​Drugs that are used to treat hepatic encephalopathy include
a.
antidepressants.
b.
diuretics and steroids.
c.
neomycin and lactulose.
d.
laxatives and stool softeners.

C

12

​13.​Someone who drinks one glass of wine every night with dinner plus an occasional beer when watching a football game would be considered to be a(n)
a.
alcoholic.
b.
light drinker.
c.
moderate drinker.
d.
heavy drinker.

C

13

​14.​Moderate daily alcohol intake may help reduce risk of
a.
cancer.
b.
stroke.
c.
hypertension.
d.
heart disease.

D

14

​15.​If a patient with cirrhosis of the liver seems to be vulnerable to development of hepatic encephalopathy, his or her diet may be supplemented with a formula that contains _____ acids.
a.
essential fatty
b.
essential amino
c.
aromatic amino
d.
branched-chain amino

D

15

​16.​An adequate kcal intake is especially important for patients with cirrhosis of the liver to prevent
a.
muscle catabolism.
b.
development of ascites.
c.
essential fatty acid deficiency.
d.
loss of appetite and taste acuity.

A

16

​17.​A patient with end-stage liver disease may lose fat stores and muscle mass, but this may not be evident from measurements of body weight because of
a.
dehydration.
b.
fat redistribution.
c.
ascites and edema.
d.
electrolyte imbalances.

C

17

​18.​After liver transplantation, long-term nutrition management may need to be tailored to help prevent
a.
weight loss, anorexia, and nausea.
b.
ascites, edema, and electrolyte imbalances.
c.
cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatic coma.
d.
excessive weight gain, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.

D

18

​19.​An example of an individual who may be at high risk for gallstones is a(n)
a.
underweight woman who runs 3 miles four times a week.
b.
man who smokes and eats eggs for breakfast every day.
c.
overweight man who has recently begun an exercise program.
d.
mother with four children who has lost 25 pounds in the past 3 months.

D

19

​20.​Cholecystitis is caused by
a.
blockage of the bile duct by gallstones, bacterial infection, or ischemia.
b.
concentration of bile in the gallbladder that favors formation of gallstones.
c.
failure of the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the small intestine.
d.
intake of excessive amounts of cholesterol and fat combined with bacterial infection.

A

20

​21.​If a patient experiences chronic symptoms of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, the recommended nutrition therapy is
a.
a low-fat diet.
b.
gradual weight loss.
c.
increased fluid intake.
d.
a low-cholesterol diet.

A

21

​22.​After surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy), long-term dietary recommendations are
a.
a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet.
b.
high protein and fluid intakes.
c.
a well-balanced diet with no other restrictions.
d.
small, frequent meals to ensure adequate intake.

C

22

​23.​Pancreatitis results in
a.
excessive production of digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, causing duodenal ulcers.
b.
decreased production of digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, causing malabsorption of fats and proteins.
c.
increased production of pancreatic hormones, causing a decrease in blood glucose levels.
d.
decreased production of pancreatic hormones, causing an increase in blood glucose levels.

B

23

​24.​During acute episodes of pancreatitis, patients often require
a.
a clear liquid diet.
b.
a high-protein diet.
c.
a high-fat, high-kcal diet.
d.
enteral or parenteral nutrition.

D

24

​25.​When patients with pancreatitis are able to tolerate enteral feedings, the recommended formula is usually a _____ formula infused into the _____.
a.
low-fat elemental; jejunum.
b.
low-fat elemental; duodenum.
c.
high-kcal, high-protein; jejunum.
d.
high-kcal, high-protein; duodenum.

A

25

​26.​Cystic fibrosis is caused by
a.
a genetic defect.
b.
cigarette smoking.
c.
bacterial infection.
d.
inadequate folate intake.

A

26

​27.​Most patients with cystic fibrosis require a
a.
low-fat, low-energy diet and hormone replacement therapy.
b.
high-fiber diet, supplements of water-soluble vitamins, and diuretics.
c.
high-protein diet, sodium restriction, and supplements of fat-soluble vitamins.
d.
high-kcal diet, multivitamin supplements, and enzyme replacement therapy.

D

27

​28.​One of the most important tools for coping with the reality of a serious chronic disease such as cystic fibrosis is
a.
having a sense of humor.
b.
avoiding talking about it.
c.
making friends only with others who have the same disease.
d.
making friends only with others who do not have the same disease.

A

28

​29.​Infants with cystic fibrosis
a.
should be fed specially designed infant formulas.
b.
should receive vitamin and mineral supplements.
c.
may be breastfed with use of enzyme replacement therapy.
d.
should delay introduction of weaning foods if they are underweight.

C

29

​30.​A bottle of beer that contains 13 g of carbohydrates and 16 g of alcohol provides _____ kcals.
a.
116
b.
155
c.
164
d.
203

C