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​1.​The purpose of diet therapy for patients with dysphagia is to avoid
a.
sepsis.
b.
reflux.
c.
vomiting.
d.
aspiration.

D

1

​2.​The three stages of swallowing are the _____ phases.
a.
early, middle, and late
b.
oral, laryngeal, and epiglottal
c.
bolus, pharyngeal, and posterior
d.
oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal

D

2

​3.​If a patient has difficulty swallowing, the best position for meals is
a.
lying flat.
b.
sitting upright.
c.
lying on one side.
d.
leaning backward slightly.

B

3

​4.​A nurse may suspect that a patient has difficulty swallowing if he or she
a.
requests frequent snacks between meals.
b.
coughs frequently before and after swallowing.
c.
prefers to drink using a straw rather than from an open cup.
d.
tends to gulp beverages and eat foods without adequate chewing.

B

4

​5.​If it is left untreated, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may lead to
a.
esophagitis.
b.
hiatal hernia.
c.
peptic ulcer disease.
d.
dumping syndrome.

A

5

​6.​An example of a meal that is likely to relax the lower esophageal sphincter and allow gastroesophageal reflux is
a.
pasta with marinara sauce and sourdough bread.
b.
ham with rice pilaf.
c.
fried chicken and pasta salad.
d.
chicken and spinach tortilla wrap with spicy salsa.

C

6

​7.​A patient has a higher risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) if they are a chronic user of
a.
certain antibiotics.
b.
laxatives and stool softeners.
c.
magnesium-aluminum antacids.
d.
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

D

7

​8.​Nutrition therapy for peptic ulcers should be individualized, but most patients should
a.
eat a diet high in fiber.
b.
eat a diet low in fat.
c.
avoid sources of caffeine.
d.
drink several glasses of milk daily.

C

8

​9.​Patients who have undergone total or partial gastrectomy may experience
a.
esophagitis.
b.
lactose intolerance.
c.
peptic ulcer disease.
d.
dumping syndrome.

D

9

​10.​Nutrition therapy for dumping syndrome includes
a.
drinking thickened liquids and increasing protein intake.
b.
avoiding caffeinated beverages and decreasing fat intake.
c.
avoiding snacks between meals and increasing intake of high-calcium foods.
d.
drinking liquids between meals and limiting intake of simple carbohydrates.

D

10

​11.​Patients with celiac disease should avoid foods that contain
a.
rice, soy, and peanuts.
b.
maize, corn, and flax.
c.
wheat, rye, and barley.
d.
rice, quinoa, and millet.

C

11

​12.​An example of a meal that may contain gluten is
a.
baked chicken breast with rice.
b.
pork chop with sweet potatoes.
c.
grilled steak with baked potato.
d.
meatloaf with mashed potatoes.

D

12

​13.​Individuals with lactose intolerance may tolerate foods that contain small amounts of lactose if they are
a.
consumed with other foods.
b.
well cooked rather than raw.
c.
consumed with foods that contain vitamin D.
d.
derived from goat’s milk rather than cow’s milk.

A

13

​14.​Milk may be made suitable for patients with lactose intolerance by treating it with tablets that contain
a.
yogurt.
b.
lactase enzyme.
c.
vitamin D and calcium.
d.
Lactobacillus acidophilus.

B

14

​15.​Major symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease include
a.
nausea and vomiting.
b.
constipation and flatulence.
c.
diarrhea and abdominal pain.
d.
weight gain and excessive thirst.

C

15

​16.​The basic meal plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be
a.
high protein, low fat.
b.
low kcal, high fat.
c.
high kcal, low protein.
d.
high kcal, high protein.

D

16

​17.​Patients with inflammatory bowel disease may benefit from a high-fiber diet during
a.
acute episodes.
b.
times of remission.
c.
recovery from surgery.
d.
preparation for surgery.

B

17

​18.​Fluid loss is most likely to be a problem for a patient with
a.
a colostomy.
b.
a hiatal hernia.
c.
an ileostomy.
d.
Crohn’s disease.

C

18

​19.​When the entire colon and rectum have been removed, the patient would have
a.
a colostomy.
b.
constipation.
c.
an ileostomy.
d.
dumping syndrome.

C

19

​20.​As effluent progresses through the colon, it becomes more
a.
solid.
b.
liquid.
c.
acidic.
d.
alkaline.

A

20

​21.​Short-bowel syndrome occurs in patients who have undergone removal of large portions of the
a.
colon.
b.
stomach.
c.
large intestine.
d.
small intestine.

D

21

​22.​Patients with short bowel syndrome sometimes require parenteral nutrition support to achieve adequate intakes of nutrients and kcals. It is important for them to return to enteral feedings as soon as possible to prevent
a.
loss of sense of taste.
b.
loss of lean body mass.
c.
atrophy of the intestinal tract.
d.
essential fatty acid deficiency.

C

22

​23.​Infection and inflammation of pouchlike protrusions from the muscular layer of the colon is known as
a.
diverticulitis.
b.
diverticulosis.
c.
Crohn’s disease.
d.
inflammatory bowel disease.

A

23

​24.​For patients with diverticulosis who are not experiencing active inflammation and infection, the recommended diet is
a.
pureed.
b.
low in fiber.
c.
high in fiber.
d.
high in protein.

C

24

​25.​When consuming a high-fiber diet, it is important to also consume adequate amounts of
a.
fluid.
b.
calcium and iron.
c.
fat-soluble vitamins.
d.
complex carbohydrates.

A

25

​26.​Gas in the colon may often be caused by
a.
consumption of carbonated beverages.
b.
swallowing air while eating or drinking.
c.
fermentation of foods by intestinal bacteria.
d.
passage of gas into the colon through the colon wall.

C

26

​27.​A common dietary cause of constipation is
a.
megacolon or Hirschsprung’s disease.
b.
inadequate intakes of dietary fiber and fluids.
c.
chronic intake of excessive amounts of caffeine.
d.
inadequate intakes of fruit and vegetable juices.

B

27

​28.​An example of a high-fiber breakfast is
a.
bagel and cream cheese with juice.
b.
cornflakes with milk and sliced banana.
c.
scrambled eggs with biscuits and honey.
d.
oatmeal and whole-wheat toast with jam.

D

28

​29.​Chronic diarrhea is usually caused by
a.
foodborne pathogens.
b.
inadequate protein intake.
c.
intestinal irritation or malabsorption.
d.
excessive intake of dietary fiber.

C

29

​30.​Treatment of diarrhea generally begins with
a.
a high-fiber, low-fat diet.
b.
removal of the cause of diarrhea.
c.
adequate fluids to hydrate the patient.
d.
a low-fat, low-fiber, or low-lactose diet.

C