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​1.​Plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the sun’s energy in the process of photosynthesis to synthesize
a.
fat.
b.
protein.
c.
carbohydrate.
d.
alcohol.

C

1

​2.​Fructose, galactose, and glucose are examples of
a.
disaccharides.
b.
polysaccharides.
c.
monosaccharides.
d.
complex carbohydrates.

C

2

​3.​Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are examples of
a.
disaccharides.
b.
polysaccharides.
c.
monosaccharides.
d.
complex carbohydrates.

A

3

​4.​Glucose is a _____, often called _____ sugar.
a.
disaccharide; blood
b.
monosaccharide; blood
c.
disaccharide; milk
d.
monosaccharide; milk

B

4

​5.​Compared with table sugar (sucrose), honey tastes _____ because it contains _____.
a.
sweeter; fructose
b.
sweeter; maltose
c.
less sweet; fructose
d.
less sweet; maltose

A

5

​6.​Someone who follows a strict vegetarian (vegan) diet and eats very few refined foods is likely to have a _____ intake of _____ carbohydrates and dietary fiber.
a.
low; complex
b.
high; complex
c.
low; simple
d.
high; simple

B

6

​7.​Ketones are produced when insufficient _____ is available and the body has to metabolize _____ for energy.
a.
carbohydrate; fat
b.
fat; carbohydrate
c.
carbohydrate; protein
d.
protein; carbohydrate

A

7

​8.​Since the 1970s, consumption of refined white sugar has decreased, mostly because
a.
health conscious consumers are using less.
b.
use of high-fructose corn syrup has increased.
c.
use of artificial sweeteners has increased.
d.
use of honey and other natural sweeteners has increased.

B

8

​9.​The person who is most likely to develop dental caries is one who
a.
eats dessert after each meal.
b.
drinks two or three regular soft drinks every day.
c.
snacks on candy bars between meals.
d.
chews gum throughout the day.

C

9

​10.​Bacteria have a role with _____ in causing _____.
a.
fiber; diabetes
b.
fiber; tooth decay
c.
sugar; diabetes
d.
sugar; tooth decay

D

10

​11.​Sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol are
a.
forms of alcohol that provide 7 kcals/g.
b.
sugar alcohols that provide 2-3 kcals/g.
c.
carbohydrates that provide 4 kcals/g.
d.
artificial sweeteners that provide negligible kcals.

B

11

​12.​Aspartame should not be consumed by
a.
infants and school-age children.
b.
individuals who suffer from migraines.
c.
individuals who have phenylketonuria (PKU).
d.
anyone who is underweight or trying to gain weight.

C

12

​13.​Cellulose is an example of a(n)
a.
soluble fiber.
b.
insoluble fiber.
c.
soluble protein.
d.
insoluble protein.

B

13

​14.​Diets low in fiber may increase the risk of
a.
hip fracture, constipation, and colon cancer.
b.
diverticular disease, hypertension, and colon cancer.
c.
diverticular disease, constipation, and dementia.
d.
diverticular disease, constipation, and colon cancer.

D

14

​15.​Eating a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day may help prevent _____ because it contains _____.
a.
heart disease; soluble fiber
b.
high blood pressure; potassium
c.
hypoglycemia; complex carbohydrate
d.
osteoporosis; calcium and vitamin D

A

15

​16.​Athletes use physical training and dietary manipulation to increase their body stores of energy in the form of
a.
glucose.
b.
glycogen.
c.
amino acids.
d.
short-chain fatty acids.

B

16

​17.​After a high-carbohydrate meal, the dominant process would be
a.
glycogenesis.
b.
glycogenolysis.
c.
gluconeogenesis.
d.
glucagon production.

A

17

​18.​A fiber intake of 15 g daily would be considered to be _____ daily intake for dietary fiber.
a.
the minimum recommended
b.
below the optimal range of
c.
within the optimal range of
d.
above the optimal range of

B

18

​19.​Dietary fiber is fermented by
a.
salivary amylase.
b.
pancreatic amylase.
c.
bacteria in the colon.
d.
bacteria in the rectum.

C

19

​20.​The dietary intervention of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables is most appropriate to relieve
a.
vomiting.
b.
diarrhea.
c.
constipation.
d.
osteoporosis.

C

20

​21.​Most of the body’s energy intake should be supplied by
a.
fat.
b.
protein.
c.
vitamins.
d.
carbohydrates.

D

21

​22.​An example of a food with a low glycemic index is
a.
lentil soup.
b.
a bagel.
c.
a sports drink.
d.
corn flakes cereal.

A

22

​23.​Most carbohydrate digestion occurs in the
a.
mouth.
b.
stomach.
c.
small intestine.
d.
large intestine.

C

23

​24.​Glucose is the preferred source of energy for the _____ systems.
a.
blood and immune
b.
heart and respiratory
c.
brain and central nervous
d.
muscular and motor nerve

C

24

​25.​After a meal, insulin is the _____ that helps lower blood _____ levels.
a.
enzyme; glucagon
b.
enzyme; epinephrine
c.
hormone; glucose
d.
hormone; sucrose

C

25

​26.​The type of diabetes that may be prevented by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly is type _____ diabetes mellitus.
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4

B

26

​27.​The best way to ensure adequate nutrient intake is to eat plenty of
a.
refined grains.
b.
enriched grains.
c.
whole grains.
d.
fiber supplements.

C

27

​28.​Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease caused by malfunctions in
a.
protein digestion.
b.
carbohydrate digestion.
c.
protein metabolism.
d.
carbohydrate metabolism.

D

28

​29.​A client has problems removing glucose from his blood because his pancreas no longer makes insulin. He has
a.
hypoglycemia.
b.
lactose intolerance.
c.
type 1 diabetes mellitus.
d.
type 2 diabetes mellitus.

C

29

​30.​Weight loss and exercise are main features of the treatment for
a.
hypoglycemia.
b.
lactose intolerance.
c.
type 1 diabetes mellitus.
d.
type 2 diabetes mellitus.

D