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​1.​Peristalsis is necessary to make it possible for people to _____ food.
a.
chew
b.
digest
c.
swallow
d.
smell and taste

C

1

​2.​An example of mechanical digestion includes
a.
activity of salivary amylase in the mouth.
b.
churning and mixing of food in the stomach.
c.
action of bile breaking fats into smaller droplets.
d.
effects of secretin in stimulating the pancreas to release bicarbonate.

B

2

​3.​Valves to control the movement of food in and out of the stomach are called
a.
reflux regulators.
b.
peristalsis muscles.
c.
sphincter muscles.
d.
segmentation muscles.

C

3

​4.​A substance that works only on a specific class of nutrient is called a(n)
a.
bolus.
b.
chyme.
c.
gastrin.
d.
enzyme.

D

4

​5.​Chemicals that act as messengers are called
a.
proteins.
b.
hormones.
c.
enzymes.
d.
nerve impulses.

B

5

​6.​The action of salivary amylase in the mouth is an example of
a.
chemical digestion.
b.
chewing.
c.
mechanical digestion.
d.
peristalsis and segmentation.

A

6

​7.​Mechanical breakdown of food is a function of the
a.
large intestine.
b.
liver and pancreas.
c.
mouth and stomach.
d.
esophagus and mouth.

C

7

​8.​A bolus is a ball of
a.
masticated food ready to be swallowed.
b.
fat emulsified with bile and intestinal secretions.
c.
mucus that helps move food along the gastrointestinal tract.
d.
indigestible fiber mixed with the waste products of digestion.

A

8

​9.​Gastrin is a(n)
a.
hormone that allows glucose to enter cells.
b.
enzyme that assists protein digestion.
c.
hormone needed for reproductive functions.
d.
hormone that increases the release of gastric juices.

D

9

​10.​The small intestine is the major site of
a.
digestion and denaturation.
b.
segmentation and excretion.
c.
digestion and absorption.
d.
peristalsis and mechanical digestion.

C

10

​11.​The villi of the small intestine increase its capacity for
a.
digestion.
b.
absorption.
c.
excretion.
d.
elimination.

B

11

​12.​The absorptive cells of the villi are covered by
a.
hairlike projections called microvilli.
b.
hormones that control digestive processes.
c.
enzymes that speed absorption of nutrients.
d.
layers of circular and longitudinal muscle.

A

12

​13.​Secretions of the pancreas neutralize the
a.
acidic chyme entering the duodenum.
b.
acidic chyme leaving the duodenum.
c.
bolus flowing down the esophagus.
d.
low-density lipoproteins leaving the liver.

A

13

​14.​Release of digestive secretions into the small intestine is caused by
a.
enzymes that are released when food enters the stomach.
b.
enzymes that are released when food enters the small intestine.
c.
hormones that are released when food enters the stomach.
d.
hormones that are released when chyme enters the small intestine.

D

14

​15.​If the large intestine did not carry out its main function, feces would be
a.
alkaline.
b.
acidic.
c.
liquid.
d.
very dry.

C

15

​16.​The esophagus is a structure that
a.
produces and releases digestive enzymes but not hormones.
b.
does not produce digestive enzymes but does release hormones.
c.
does not produce or release digestive enzymes or hormones.
d.
produces only small amounts of digestive enzymes or hormones.

C

16

​17.​The mouth, stomach, small intestine, and colon describe the
a.
order in which food travels during reverse peristalsis.
b.
pathway blood travels after leaving the liver.
c.
pathway of hormones that release intestinal secretions.
d.
order in which food moves through the gastrointestinal tract.

D

17

​18.​Facilitated diffusion is a type of absorption that requires a special carrier to transport a molecule across the cell membrane and
a.
requires energy.
b.
does not require energy.
c.
is also called pinocytosis.
d.
is also called passive diffusion.

B

18

​19.​Active transport is
a.
also called passive diffusion.
b.
the diffusion process that requires energy.
c.
the absorption process that requires energy.
d.
the absorption process that sometimes requires energy.

C

19

​20.​Nutrients are truly inside the body when they are
a.
swallowed.
b.
digested.
c.
absorbed.
d.
metabolized.

C

20

​21.​The bloodstream carries nutrients to the liver soon after absorption because the liver
a.
produces hormones that regulate blood glucose level.
b.
is an important site of metabolism and production of vital substances.
c.
is able to determine which substances should be stored and eliminated.
d.
has similar functions to the stomach relative to the digestive process.

B

21

​22.​An example of catabolism is
a.
conversion of glucose to glycogen.
b.
the breakdown of glucose to provide energy.
c.
the synthesis of protein from amino acids.
d.
use of enzymes to digest protein and release amino acids.

B

22

​23.​Waste products are excreted from the body by the
a.
lungs, kidneys, and large intestine.
b.
liver, kidneys, and pancreas.
c.
skin, small intestine, and large intestine.
d.
lungs, liver, and spleen.

A

23

​24.​A busy and stressed person who eats very few fruits and vegetables and does not take time to exercise is likely to experience
a.
vomiting.
b.
diarrhea.
c.
constipation.
d.
lactose intolerance.

C

24

​25.​Dehydration may occur after
a.
vomiting and diarrhea.
b.
constipation and heartburn.
c.
esophagitis and anemia.
d.
gastroesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia.

A

25

​26.​A person that complains that they have problems with gas, bloating, and diarrhea if they eat breakfast cereal with milk but not if they eat pancakes or waffles, may have
a.
milk allergy.
b.
gluten intolerance.
c.
irritable bowel syndrome.
d.
lactose intolerance.

D

26

​27.​The adjectives “mechanical” and “chemical” describe two
a.
actions needed to cook food.
b.
ways to move substances in the body.
c.
types of action that result in digestion.
d.
ways molecules are transported into and out of cells.

C

27

​28.​The esophagus is the
a.
muscular tube used for excretion of waste products.
b.
pathway through which enzymes and hormones travel.
c.
pathway that blood follows within the body from organ to organ.
d.
muscular tube along which a food bolus travels from the mouth to the stomach.

D

28

​29.​Metabolism is the process by which
a.
absorbed nutrients are used to break down body structures.
b.
absorbed nutrients are used to break down and maintain body structures and functions.
c.
excreted nutrients are used by the body for energy and to form and maintain body structures and functions.
d.
absorbed nutrients are used by the body for energy and to form and maintain body structures and functions.

D

29

​30.​Vomiting is
a.
reverse peristalsis.
b.
forward peristalsis.
c.
an eating disorder.
d.
gastroesophageal reflux.

A