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​1.​The nutrient that provides the densest energy source is
a.
fat.
b.
protein.
c.
alcohol.
d.
carbohydrate.

A

1

​2.​Sex hormones, bile, and vitamin D are formed in the body from
a.
sterols.
b.
triglycerides.
c.
phospholipids.
d.
chylomicrons.

A

2

​3.​If a patient receiving fat-free parenteral nutrition develops eczema, the patient may have
a.
vitamin C deficiency.
b.
essential fatty acid deficiency.
c.
protein-energy malnutrition.
d.
phospholipid and sterol deficiency.

B

3

​4.​Hydrogenation of vegetable oils _____ their shelf life and makes them _____ harmful to health.
a.
decreases; less
b.
increases; less
c.
decreases; more
d.
increases; more

D

4

​5.​A triglyceride is a compound composed of
a.
glycerol with two fatty acids attached.
b.
glycerol with three amino acids attached.
c.
glycerol with three fatty acids attached.
d.
organic molecules formed in triangular chains.

C

5

​6.​A polyunsaturated fatty acid is a fatty acid with _____ bond(s) on the carbon chain.
a.
one double
b.
no double
c.
oxidized
d.
two or more double

D

6

​7.​If a client wants to lose 1 lb of body fat each week, they would need to make sure that their daily calorie intake was lower than their daily energy needs by _____ kcals/day.
a.
350
b.
500
c.
900
d.
3500

B

7

​8.​In their natural form, most oils come from _____ products and most solid fats come from _____ products.
a.
natural; processed
b.
organic; refined
c.
animal; plant
d.
plant; animal

D

8

​9.​The number of double bonds present in the fatty acid chain determines the
a.
number of fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule.
b.
number of glycerol molecules attached to the fatty acid.
c.
degree of saturation or unsaturation of a fatty acid.
d.
degree of saturation or unsaturation of the glycerol molecule.

C

9

​10.​By interfering with blood clotting, omega-3 fatty acids appear to lower the
a.
risk of hypertension.
b.
risk of heart disease.
c.
levels of serum triglyceride.
d.
levels of serum cholesterol.

B

10

​11.​Overall energy intake can be greatly affected by relatively small changes in intake of
a.
protein.
b.
carbohydrate.
c.
fat.
d.
alcohol.

C

11

​12.​The number of kcals provided by 23 g of fat is
a.
92.
b.
161.
c.
207.
d.
230.

C

12

​13.​If dietary analysis shows that fat provides 31% of an individual’s energy intake, their fat intake would be considered to be
a.
below the recommended range.
b.
within the recommended range.
c.
above the recommended range.
d.
generally recognized as safe.

B

13

​14.​Meat, dairy products, and nuts are major sources of _____ in the diet.
a.
fat
b.
fiber
c.
vitamins
d.
carbohydrate

A

14

​15.​Hydrogenation is the process by which a liquid oil is made _____ solid and _____ stable.
a.
less; more
b.
more; more
c.
less; less
d.
more; less

B

15

​16.​A client with coronary artery disease tells you that they always look for foods that are labeled “cholesterol free.” Foods with this label may still promote heart disease if they are high in
a.
monounsaturated fat and cis fat.
b.
polyunsaturated fat and trans fat.
c.
saturated fat and trans fat.
d.
medium chain triglycerides and cis fat.

C

16

​17.​If a salad dressing is made with olive oil it would contain mostly _____ fatty acids.
a.
trans
b.
saturated
c.
polyunsaturated
d.
monounsaturated

D

17

​18.​High levels of trans fatty acids are found in
a.
vegetable oils.
b.
coconut and palm oil.
c.
meats and dairy foods.
d.
vegetable oil shortening.

D

18

​19.​Antioxidants can be used to preserve fats without the addition of
a.
hydrogen.
b.
hydrogen and carbon.
c.
hydrogen and oxygen.
d.
hydrogen, water, and carbon.

A

19

​20.​A special property of phospholipids that makes them valuable in foods and in the body is that they
a.
carry fat-soluble vitamins.
b.
are useful as low-energy fat substitutes.
c.
are soluble in water and fat at the same time.
d.
function as natural antioxidants.

C

20

​21.​Most fat enters the lymphatic system after
a.
absorption.
b.
circulation.
c.
metabolism.
d.
hydrogenation.

A

21

​22.​If a client has a total blood cholesterol of 246 mg/dL and a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 172 mg/dL, their blood cholesterol level would be considered to be
a.
low.
b.
desirable.
c.
borderline high.
d.
high.

D

22

​23.​High levels of low-density lipoproteins are associated with an increased risk of
a.
diabetes mellitus.
b.
high levels of HDL.
c.
coronary artery disease.
d.
high blood pressure and stroke.

C

23

​24.​The best way to decrease blood cholesterol level is to decrease dietary intake of
a.
cholesterol.
b.
saturated fat.
c.
monounsaturated fat.
d.
polyunsaturated fat.

B

24

​25.​The client most likely to benefit from use of medium chain triglycerides is one who
a.
has essential fatty acid deficiency.
b.
has malabsorption because of removal of part of their small intestine.
c.
needs to gain weight after surgery and chemotherapy to treat bowel cancer.
d.
has high serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

B

25

​26.​A good lunch choice for someone who wants to increase their intake of omega-3 fatty acids would be
a.
peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
b.
lentil soup.
c.
salad with olive oil dressing.
d.
tuna salad sandwich.

D

26

​27.​Emulsification occurs so that dietary fat can be _____ by enzymes in the digestive tract.
a.
dissolved
b.
oxidized
c.
broken down
d.
hydrogenated

C

27

​28.​A substance that increases the solubility of fats to facilitate their digestion and absorption is
a.
bile.
b.
stomach acid.
c.
salivary lipase.
d.
glycerol.

A

28

​29.​Overly restricting the fat intake of infants may lead to failure to thrive. Infants depend on dietary fat and cholesterol for formation of
a.
energy stores and bones.
b.
brain and bones.
c.
brain and nerve tissue.
d.
energy stores and nerve tissue.

C

29

​30.​A client grew up on a farm and learned to prepare foods using butter and lard produced by the farm animals. She is now in her 60s and has just learned that she has coronary artery disease. To best meet her physical as well as psychologic needs, the health practitioner should
a.
suggest that she adopt a low-fat vegetarian dietary pattern.
b.
ask how she usually prepares foods and suggest ways to reduce the use of animal fat.
c.
advise her to eat more fruits and vegetables and to replace some of the animal fat with palm and coconut oil.
d.
advise her to avoid adding fat to foods and eat only very lean poultry and fish.

B