Flashcards in Chem: Carbs Deck (70)
4 "fuel factor"
glycogen is storage form of??
multiple hydroxy groups
energy storage ?
coenzymes, RNA, DNA
Levoratory configuration of asymmetric carbon farthest from keto group
OH on the left
Dextrorotatory configuration of asymmetric carbon farthest from keto group
OH on the Right
sugars with 1 or 2 single sugars
many sugar units
sugar alcohol from glu & converted into fru
found: berries, cherries, plums, pears
used: to make sweeteners- excess can cause diarrhea
complex CHO's made of many single sugar units
increasing positive charge or loss of negative charges
gain of electrons
oxidized is lost
reduced is gain
prebiotic in vivo=
10 grams = how many kcal?
what hormones raise blood glucose?
citric acid cycle
catabolic pathways depend on?
conc. of ATP, ADP, & AMP
- if ATP is high, then the pathways are low\
- if ATP is low then the pathways are activated
CHO bonds are__?
branched chain 1-6
glucose; 6 carbons; Aldose; dextrose, corn syrup
Fructose; 6 carbons; Ketose; fruits, honey
Ribose; 5 carbons; Aldose; nucleic acids
Sorbitol; fruits, honey
Mannitol; pineapples, olives, sweet potatoes
Disaccharides & oligosaccharide ex:
Maltose; alpha1-4; glu + glu
lactose; beta1-4; glu + gal
sucrose; a-b 1-2; glu + fru
trehalose; alpha 1-6; isomaltose; mushrooms, yeast
cellulose; b1-4; fiber
amylose (linear); a1-4; plant starch
amylopectin; a1-4>a1-6; plant starch; branch every 24-30 glu
glycogen; a1-4>a1-6; animal strach; branch every 8-12 glu
abosrb water, swell, slow emptying of food mass
bind bile acids to chol.
sources: hemicelluose, pectins, gums, mucilages, algal (seaweed)
only non-carb type of dietary fiber (from woody part of plant)
carbs are digested in?
none in stomach
SI breaks down carbs using enzymes: sucrase, lactase, maltase etc.
most abundant GAG?
liver, kidney, beta cells
transports are coupled with sodium
adipose, skeletal, cardiac
sensitive to insulin
fru absorption; brushborder
protein core, repeating disaccharide
glu & gal absorption in intestines
carboxyl group is added
carboxylase catlyzes the addition
enzyme that transfers a phosphate group
changes the configuration but not the composition of a compound
moves one group to another part in the same chemical compound
catalyzes the transfer of a functional from one molecule to another
catalyzes the joining of two molecules
VMAX refers to?
the maximum velocity of a reaction
substrate conc required to reach 1/2 of the Vmax
competitive inhibition is?
inhibitor binds to the same active site as a normal enzyme w/o undergoing a reaction.
reversible. Vmax will not change
inhibitor always bind to a site other than the enzymes active site. is irreversible.
enzymes activity is regulated by binding an effector molecule at the enzymes allosteric site
effectors that enhance the proteins activity
decrease protein activity
catabolism results in?
it is a degradative process that breaks down large molecules into smaller units, releasing useful energy
biosynthetic process that constructs large molecules from smaller units- requires energy
peptide bond is?
carboxyl reacts to amino group of another molecule
releases a water molecule (dehydration or condensation reaction)
ester bond is the chemical covalent bond between ?
glycerol and FA
chemical bond bwn two nucleotides
FA oxidation, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation occur in?
glycolysis, FA synthesis, HMP shunt & protein synthesis occur in?
heme synthesis, urea & gluconeogensis occur in?
both mitochondria & cytoplasm
rate limiting step of: glycolysis
PFK** Most important**
rate limiting step of: gluconeogenesis`
fru 1,6 bisphospahtase
rate limiting step of: TCA cycle (krebs)
rate limiting step of: glycogen synthesis
rate limiting step of: glycogenolysis
rate limiting step of: HMP shunt
rate limiting step of: urea cycle
carbamoyl phosphate synthetase
rate limiting step of: FA synthesis
acetyl co-a carboxylase
rate limiting step of: FA oxidation
rate limiting step of: chol. synthesis
HMG co-A reductase
RBC, brain, placenta, testis
4 possible fates of pyruvate
Krebs cycle has 8 steps:
"Can I keep Selling Sex For Money Officer?"
Glycolysis has 10 steps:
4. F1,6BP>G3P & (DHAP)
Pay off Phase:
6. G3P> 1,3BP
7. 1,3BP> 3 phosphoglycerate
9. 2pg> phosphoenolpyruvate
glycolysis in reverse
Pathway Produces Fresh Glucose
what is produced in Krebs?
2 NADH+H= 6ATP
2Pyruvate to acetyl co-a= 6ATP
Acetyl co-a to Oxaloacetate= 24ATP
total: 38 ATP