Chem: Carbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chem: Carbs Deck (70)
1

__ kcal/g

4 "fuel factor"

2

glycogen is storage form of??

carbs incytosol

3

Ketone?

multiple hydroxy groups

4

energy storage ?

coenzymes, RNA, DNA

5

Levoratory configuration of asymmetric carbon farthest from keto group

OH on the left
Levo=Left

6

Dextrorotatory configuration of asymmetric carbon farthest from keto group

OH on the Right
Dextro=Right

7

simple carb??

sugars with 1 or 2 single sugars

8

complex carb??

many sugar units

9

sorbitol is??

sugar alcohol from glu & converted into fru
found: berries, cherries, plums, pears
used: to make sweeteners- excess can cause diarrhea

10

polysaccharides??

complex CHO's made of many single sugar units

11

oxidation means?

increasing positive charge or loss of negative charges

12

reduction means??

additionof hydrogen
gain of electrons

13

OIL RIG

oxidized is lost
reduced is gain

14

prebiotic in vivo=

fructans

15

10 grams = how many kcal?

40kcal

16

what hormones raise blood glucose?

glucagon
EPI
glucocorticoids
thyroxine
GH

17

catabolic pathways?

glycolysis
pyruvate oxidation
citric acid cycle
oxidative phosphorylation

18

catabolic pathways depend on?

conc. of ATP, ADP, & AMP
- if ATP is high, then the pathways are low\
- if ATP is low then the pathways are activated

19

CHO bonds are__?

glycosidic
alpha-digestible
beta-indigestible
straight chain-1-4
branched chain 1-6

20

monosaccharides ex:

glucose; 6 carbons; Aldose; dextrose, corn syrup
Fructose; 6 carbons; Ketose; fruits, honey
Ribose; 5 carbons; Aldose; nucleic acids
Sorbitol; fruits, honey
Mannitol; pineapples, olives, sweet potatoes

21

Disaccharides & oligosaccharide ex:

Maltose; alpha1-4; glu + glu
lactose; beta1-4; glu + gal
sucrose; a-b 1-2; glu + fru
trehalose; alpha 1-6; isomaltose; mushrooms, yeast

22

polysaccharides ex:

cellulose; b1-4; fiber
amylose (linear); a1-4; plant starch
amylopectin; a1-4>a1-6; plant starch; branch every 24-30 glu
glycogen; a1-4>a1-6; animal strach; branch every 8-12 glu

23

non-cellulose polysaccharides

abosrb water, swell, slow emptying of food mass
bind bile acids to chol.
sources: hemicelluose, pectins, gums, mucilages, algal (seaweed)

24

ligin?

only non-carb type of dietary fiber (from woody part of plant)

25

carbs are digested in?

mouth-ptyalin starch>dextrins>maltose
none in stomach
SI breaks down carbs using enzymes: sucrase, lactase, maltase etc.

26

most abundant GAG?

chondroitin

27

Glut 2=

liver, kidney, beta cells
transports are coupled with sodium

28

Glut 4=

adipose, skeletal, cardiac
sensitive to insulin

29

Glut 5=

fru absorption; brushborder

30

prtoeoglycan=

protein core, repeating disaccharide

31

SGLT 1=
SGLT 2=

glu & gal absorption in intestines
kidneys

32

carboxylation=

carboxyl group is added
carboxylase catlyzes the addition

33

kinase is?

enzyme that transfers a phosphate group

34

isomerase does?

changes the configuration but not the composition of a compound

35

mutase does?

moves one group to another part in the same chemical compound

36

transferase does?

catalyzes the transfer of a functional from one molecule to another

37

ligase?

catalyzes the joining of two molecules

38

VMAX refers to?

the maximum velocity of a reaction

39

Kmax ?

substrate conc required to reach 1/2 of the Vmax

40

competitive inhibition is?

inhibitor binds to the same active site as a normal enzyme w/o undergoing a reaction.
reversible. Vmax will not change

41

non-competitive inhibition?

inhibitor always bind to a site other than the enzymes active site. is irreversible.
reduces Vmax

42

allosteric regulation?

enzymes activity is regulated by binding an effector molecule at the enzymes allosteric site

43

allosteric activators?

effectors that enhance the proteins activity

44

allosteric inhibitors?

decrease protein activity

45

catabolism results in?

heat generation
ATP synthesis
it is a degradative process that breaks down large molecules into smaller units, releasing useful energy

46

Anabolism is?

biosynthetic process that constructs large molecules from smaller units- requires energy

47

peptide bond is?

covalent bond
carboxyl reacts to amino group of another molecule
releases a water molecule (dehydration or condensation reaction)

48

ester bond is the chemical covalent bond between ?

glycerol and FA

49

phosphodiester is?

chemical bond bwn two nucleotides

50

FA oxidation, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation occur in?

mitchondria

51

glycolysis, FA synthesis, HMP shunt & protein synthesis occur in?

cytoplasm

52

heme synthesis, urea & gluconeogensis occur in?

both mitochondria & cytoplasm

53

rate limiting step of: glycolysis

PFK** Most important**

54

rate limiting step of: gluconeogenesis`

fru 1,6 bisphospahtase

55

rate limiting step of: TCA cycle (krebs)

isocitrate dehydrogenase

56

rate limiting step of: glycogen synthesis

glycogen synthase

57

rate limiting step of: glycogenolysis

glycogen phosphorylase

58

rate limiting step of: HMP shunt

G6PD

59

rate limiting step of: urea cycle

carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

60

rate limiting step of: FA synthesis

acetyl co-a carboxylase

61

rate limiting step of: FA oxidation

carnitine acyltransferase

62

rate limiting step of: chol. synthesis

HMG co-A reductase

63

GLUT 1=

RBC, brain, placenta, testis

64

GLUT 3=

neurons

65

4 possible fates of pyruvate

ocidation
reduction
carboxylation
transamination

66

Krebs cycle has 8 steps:

Citrate
Isocitrate
Ketoglutarate
Succinyl Co-A
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate
"Can I keep Selling Sex For Money Officer?"

67

Glycolysis has 10 steps:
2 phases

prep phase:
1. GLU>G6P
2. G6P>F6P
3. F6P>F1,6BP
4. F1,6BP>G3P & (DHAP)
5. DHAP>G3P
Pay off Phase:
6. G3P> 1,3BP
7. 1,3BP> 3 phosphoglycerate
8. 3pg>2pg
9. 2pg> phosphoenolpyruvate
10. phosphoenolpyruvate>pyruvate

68

Gluconeogensis is?

glycolysis in reverse
Pathway Produces Fresh Glucose

69

what is produced in Krebs?

2 ATP
2 NADH+H= 6ATP
2Pyruvate to acetyl co-a= 6ATP
Acetyl co-a to Oxaloacetate= 24ATP

total: 38 ATP

70

purpose of pentose phopshate pathway (HMP shunt)

fatty acid synthesis
detoxification
protection from free radicals