Flashcards in China One Child Policy Deck (26)
When did China realise it was headed for famine?
When did China have a famine and how many deaths?
1959 - 1961
What meant growth was unsustainable?
4 aspects of the policy
- Only 1 successful pregnancy
- don't marry until late 20s
- sterilisation after 1st child / abortions
- Granny police checked upon young couples and made sure women attended contraception appointments
3 positive incentives
5-10% salary rise
Priority housing, pension and family benefits
6 negative incentives
10% salary cut
Fine - bankrupt most households
Must pay for education for all children
Pay for healthcare for whole family
2nd child born abroad not allowed Chinese citizenship
Pay cuts for colleagues to force abortion
7 positive impacts
- Forecasted famine didn't occur
- Enough food and jobs
- New industries lifted millions out of poverty
- 400M births prevented
- BR fell
- increase technology and resource exploitation = higher living standard
- Stellar education
How many births were prevented?
By how much did BR fall?
33.4 ---> 17
1979 ---> 1996
What category were most of the negative impacts? (Environmental/social/economic)
Who were women under pressure from?
Families, workmates, Gov, Granny Police
What was the gender imbalance?
120 males : 100 females = bachelor futures
How many orphans?
How much money was paid in fines?
2 trillion Yuan
Which groups of people were most affected?
Rural farmers - needed lots of children to work the land and needed boys --> poverty and starvation
6 other negative impacts
- Forced abortions 9 months into pregnancy
- Little emperors
- Gov power over people's private lives
- Dying rooms
- Female infanticide
- Dependency issues
What proportion of children died within first year in Dying Rooms and why?
9/10 died within first year due to deliberate starvation
Name for female infanticide
China's Lost Girls
Why were there dependency issues?
1 child looking after 4 grandparents and 2 parents
How many more births than deaths as of 2008?
1 million more births than deaths every 5 weeks
How many people still living on less than how much per day?
600 million on
How more men than women currently?
3 other problems (current situation)
- Increasing wealth = more people breaking rules
- Risk of severe labour shortage
- Growing ageing population as LE increasing
When and how is the policy being scrapped?
March 2016 - will be allowed 2 children
3 points of evaluation
- Won't be able to support growing ageing pop = policy created different problems
- Human costs > Success of reducing BR
- American research suggests BR would have fallen anyway due to socio-economic development