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AS Geography > Social Welfare > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Welfare Deck (27):
1

Definition Social Welfare

This is the well-being of communities. If refers to the access that individuals have to job opportunities, housing, healthcare, education, an unpolluted and safe environment, and freedom to practise one's culture and religion.

2

4 zones of city

CBD
inner city
suburbs
rural-urban fringe

3

street pattern inner city

Rectilinear / Grid Iron

4

land use inner city

Mixed - housing and industry

5

2 features of housing inner city

High density
Terraced

6

3 other features of inner city

No evidence of gardens or open space
works and factories
schools and places of worship

7

street pattern suburbs

curvilinear

8

2 features of housing suburbs

Low density
Semi-detached/detached

9

4 other features of suburbs

gardens and garages
more open space
services for local population
cul-de-sacs and crescents

10

2 features of housing rural-urban fringe

individual settlements
lowest density

11

5 other features of rural-urban fringe

farms
lots of open space
woodland
reservoirs
golf courses

12

case study for population increase affecting rural area

East Keswick

13

case studies for population increase affecting urban area

Harehills
or Brazil migration

14

case study for population decrease affecting urban area

Harehills

15

case study for population decrease affecting rural area

East Keswick

16

4 impacts of pop increase East Keswick

- Influx of elderly = changes demographics
- influx of those buying second homes = changes level of wealth
- impact on provision of services
- more varied, high order services and loss of basic food services e.g. Butchers

17

2 impacts of pop decrease east Keswick

decline of services
village deserted during day due to commuters = community spirit declines

18

4 impacts of pop increase Harehills

- 28% Asian/Asian British
- Ethnic food and supermarkets
- Variety of places of worship
- Increased multicultural mix has promoted tolerance

19

4 impacts of pop decrease Harehills

- Investment in area declines = rundown and neglected
- properties sub-divided or rented = housing quality falls
- Deprived members of society left behind (poor, elderly, single parents) = downward spiral
- employment falls and services close

20

6 negative impacts of pop increase Brazil

- Urban sprawl = growth of Favelas
- Higher disease due to overcrowding
- lower standard of living
- higher crime rate
- shortage of employment
- pressure on health and education services

21

2 positive impacts of pop increase Brazil

- Slums of despair to Slums of hope in long term
- Economy grows and standard of living rises due to Self Help schemes

22

What does a Census collect data on? (4)

Demographic data:
employment, ethnicity, education, housing

23

4 benefits of a Census to Gov.

- Helps with decision making
- Records changes over previous 10 years and helps future planning
- Predict changes in population and migration patterns
- So enable good Social Welfare provision

24

How does a Census enable good Social Welfare provision?

- Estimate demand for services such as health, education, employment, housing and transport.

High % children = need more state education
High % elderly = need more doctors and hospitals

25

What other organisations benefit from a census and how?

Retailers, advertisers, financial services and property developers.
- target marketing campaigns at postcode area
- Sell what's suitable e.g. ready meals where lots of single adults, ethnic food
- Insurance companies make accurate risk assessments

26

3 general benefits of a census (as opposed to other methods)

- Can compare different parts of country
- Complete coverage of country
- Data available for variety of geographical sites - Output and Super Output Areas, wards, national parks.

27

5 problems with census

- Threat to privacy
- Some people don't return forms
- Conflicts or political conditions make census difficult
- Time delay in getting info as results processed
- Boundary changes of areas = results of census with previous ones not comparable = can't see change over time