Population Change: Key Terms Flashcards Preview

AS Geography > Population Change: Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Population Change: Key Terms Deck (29):
1

Death Rate

The number of deaths per 1000 per year in a country

2

Fertility rate

Number of live births per 1000 women of a normal reproductive age (15-49 years) per year in a country

3

Total fertility rate

The average number of children a woman in a population has in her lifetime.

4

Replacement level

The desired fertility rate of 2.1 births per woman to meet the replacement rate

5

Life expectancy

The number of years a person in a population can expect to live

6

Longevity

The increase in life expectancy over a period of time

7

Natural change

Birth rate - death rate.

8

Infant mortality rate

Number of deaths of children under the age of 1 per 1000 live births per year.

9

Migration rate

Measure of the balance between immigration and emigration

10

Net migration

Immigration - emigration per 1000 people per year

11

Population density

The number of people per unit area of land (usually km^2)

12

Birth Rate

The number of live births per 1000 people per year in a country

13

HDI

A composite statistic of GNI per capita, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and life expectancy at birth. It forms a scale from 0 to 1, with 1 being the most developed.

14

Population structure

The composition of the population in terms of age and sex

15

Population pyramid

Graph showing sex-age distribution of a given population. It shows. The age is shown of the y axis, percentage of population on x axis and sex shown on left/right sides. It shows the structure as one moment in time.

16

Dependency ratio

A measure of proportion of a population which is composed of dependents (0-14 and 65+) compared to economically active (15-64). Higher ratio = greater dependency.

Formula = % aged 0-14 + % aged 65+ / % aged 15-64

17

Support ratio

A measure of ratio between those who can provide economic support and those who need it. Inverse of dependency ratio.

18

Old age index

A measure of proportion of elderly people in a population

19

Juvenility index

measure of proportion of younger people in a population

20

Migration

The movement of people from one home to another for at least a year

21

Net migration

The balance between immigration and emigration

22

International migration

Movement from one country to another, which involves crossing a border.

23

Refugee

A person unable or unwilling to return to their homeland for fear of persecution based on race, religion, ethnicity or political opinion, or those who have been displaced forcibly by other factors

24

Asylum seeker

A refugee who makes a formal application to stay and live in a country when they arrive

25

Under population

There are too few people in an area to use the resources efficiently and technology. An increased in population would mean resources are used more effective, hence standard of living would rise.

26

Overpopulation

There are too many people in an area relative to the resources and level of technology available locally to maintain a high standard of living. A reduction in population would result in a rise in living standard.

27

Optimum population

There is a balance between the population size and the amount of resources available. This is a theoretical population that will produce the highest standard of living.

28

Who are the optimists in the population resource debate?

Boserup

Simon

Lomborg

29

Who are the pessimists?

Malthus (+ Neo-Malthusians)

Club of Rome

Ehrlich