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Flashcards in York 2000 Deck (44):
1

6 physical causes of York flooding

- Catchment area
- Relief
- Geology and Geomorphology
- Vegetation
- Soils
- Climate and rainfall

2

How big is the catchment area?

3000 km^2

3

Which 3 rivers feed the Ouse?

Swale, Nidd and Ure

4

Which areas do the rivers feeding York drain?

Dales and Pennines

5

How does the relief contribute?

Upper course in dales steep = promotes faster runoff and less infiltration

6

How does the geology and geomorphology contribute?

Impermeable clay = can't infiltrate = more runoff

7

How does vegetation lead to flooding?

Heathers and moorland in upper basin = low interception rates

Deciduous trees lose leaves in winter

8

How did soils contribute to flooding?

Peat soils absorbed summer precipitation = stores full in late autumn = more run off

9

How did climate and rainfall lead to flooding?

Autumn 2000 wettest on record

Waters that flood York come from dales area where rain is heavy. Not from Ouse section as rain (640mm) = PET (540mm)

10

3 human causes of flooding

- Farming
- Urban developments
- Climate change

11

How did farming lead to flooding?

- Upland areas for pastoral farming = grass for cattle = little interception.

- Arable farming in Vale of York = deforestation = no interception when crops harvested

12

How did urban developments lead to flooding?

- New housing, out of town shopping, industry, widening of A1

- Impermeable surfaces and drains carry water to Ouse quickly
- Developments on North of York, Clifton Moor

13

How did climate change lead to flooding?

- More extreme weather
- Led to series of deep depressions across Atlantic = rain
- Uk temps rising by 1-3 degrees over next 80 years = wetter winters

14

How much are temperatures rising in UK?

1-3 degrees over next 80 years

15

How many homes flooded?

300

16

Which area was badly affected?

Radcliffe badly affected

17

What had to close for months? Why?

Rowntrees park. Floodwaters had to be drained and play equipment hosed.

18

How many roads closed?

25 roads

19

What fields were saturated ?

Knavesmire fields near racecourse saturated

20

6 social effects

1. Over 300 homes flooded
2. People had to leave home
3. Rowntrees park closed for month
4. Essential maintenance work on rail track delayed
5. Insurance companies treated people unfairly

21

How much more likely is there to be 5 days in a row with heavy winter rain in UK?

50-60% more likely of 5 days plus with heavy rain in UK compared to 1960

22

Two examples of businesses flooded

King's Head pub under water
City screen cinema

23

2 other infrastructure flooded

- City centre car parks
- Site of almost complete millennium footbridge south of centre of York

24

How much did it cost the City of York Council?

£1.3 million

25

What was the biggest expense for the city of York

Protecting properties - sandbags

26

How much money spent on fire service

£100,000

27

How much money spent on army

£41,000

28

How much of the bill did city of York pay?

£770,000 themselves

Reclaimed 1/2 bill from government

29

Overall cost of flooding

Over £1 billion

30

2 economic effects in terms of property

- Higher insurance premiums as worries 12 months later despite weather and defences

- Property blight - new rules means sellers had to tell buyers about flooding risk = flood prone areas couldn't sell easily = house prices fell

31

Summary of 6 short term responses

- Sandbags
- Evacuation.
- Movement from homes
- Rest centres opened
- Deputy prime minister flew in
- Gov. Financial assistance

32

How many sandbags were filled and who distributed them?

1000s

- Emergency services: Fire, police, ambulance, army

33

How were stranded people evacuated?

By gangplank or boat

34

How many people were moved from homes?

40

35

How many rest centres were opened up?

2

36

Who was the deputy prime minister and why did he fly into York?

John Prescott

- Visited victims and said 'great sympathy'
- Pledged to speed up and increase payments

37

3 factors of gov financial assistance

- Promised to pay total cost - not just 85%
- Emergency cabinet meeting London: Prescott promised £51 M more to improve flood defences over four years
- Money spent on researching link between global warming and flooding

38

How much more money did gov promise to give to York?

£51 M over 4 years

39

5 long term responses

- Defences repaired and strengthened
- National flood forum York
- Environment Agency flood fair
- York Flood Scrutiny Panel met
- Need 1000s more trees

40

When was the national flood forum and what was discussed?

2002

- aimed to give homes and businesses advice about defending property

41

What happened at the Environment Agency flood fair?

- Householders saw measures used by official agencies
- Advice on precautions e.g. Airbrick covers and equipment to stop floodwaters through doors

42

What happened when the York flood scrutiny panel met? (3)

- Addressed how problems were dealt with
- Criticised police, council and environment Agency
- Published report 2004: gave 20 recommendations on how authorities should respond

43

When did the York flood scrutiny panel public and report and what did it recommend ?

2004

- Flood awareness training for councillors and media strategy to give out info during an emergency

44

How did environmentalists say we needed to respond?

Need 1000s more trees - afforestation