Common Brain Lesions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Brain Lesions Deck (12):
1

Amygdala (bilateral)

Consequence: Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)

Notes: Associated with HSV-1.

2

Frontal lobe

Consequence: Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, and judgement; may have reemergence of primitive reflexes

Notes:

3

Right parietal lobe

Consequence: Spatial neglect syndrome (agnosia of the contralateral side of the world)

Notes:

4

Reticular activating system (midbrain)

Consequence: Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)

Notes:

5

Mammillary bodies (bilateral)

Consequence: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia; memory loss (anterograde and retrograde amnesia), confabulation, personality changes

Notes: Associated with thiamine (B1) deficiency and excessive EtOH use; can be precipitated by giving glucose without B1 to B1-deficient patient.

6

Basal ganglia

Consequence: May result in tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis

Notes: Parkinson's disease.

7

Cerebellar hemisphere

Consequence: Intention tremor, limb ataxia, and loss of balance; damage to the cerebellum results in ipsilateral deficits; fall toward side of lesion
Notes: Cerebellar hemispheres are laterally located-affect lateral limbs.

8

Cerebellar vermis

Consequence: Truncal ataxia, dysarthria

Notes: Vermis is centrally located-affects central body.

9

Subthalamic nucleus

Consequence: Contralateral hemiballismus

Notes:

10

Hippocampus

Consequence: Anterograde amnesia-inability to make new memories

Notes:

11

Paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF)

Consequence: Eyes look away from side of lesion

Notes:

12

Frontal eye fields

Eyes look toward lesion

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