Why is the hydrolysis of fat important in Provalone and Romano cheeese?
Short chain fatty acids (especially butyric) are important for flavor
Why does Holstein milk appear whiter than Jersey milk?
Holsteins are more efficient at converting B-carotene to vitamin A, so Holstein milk has less B-carotene
Why are chelating agents used in dairy products?
De-aggregate casein complexes
Which of the following foods does not have a “standard of identity”? a) cheddar cheese b) mayonnaise c) frozen yogurt d) ketchup
c) Frozen yogurt
Which of the following acts as a buffer in milk? Citrates, Lactose, Sodium Chloride, All of the above
Which has more calories, margarine or butter?
Neither, they are both the same
What test is used to measure the viability of starter culture activity during the fermentation of cottage cheese?
TA, TTA, or Titratable Acidity
What process is used to produce condensed milk?
What organism is used in the manufacture of blue cheese?
What must be done to milk before it can be used as a bread ingredient?
It must be scalded
What milk protein is a cofactor for the synthesis of lactose?
What microorganism is responsible for the surface ripening of Brick, Limburger, and Muenster cheeses, among others?
What is ultra-pasteurized milk?
280 F at least 2 sec. as to produce a product which has an extended shelf life under refrigeration conditions.
What is the unpurified extract from the fourth stomach of unweaned calves that is used to cause coagulation of milk for making cheese?
What is the time-temperature relationship for HTST processing of raw milk?
At least 71.7 C (161 F) for at least 15 seconds
What is the purpose of resazurin reduction test?
To determine the level of microorganisms in a (milk) sample; to determine shelflife of a sample
What is the predominant component of dried cheese whey?
What is the percent of non-fat milk solids found in whole milk?
What is the most predominant component in milk?
Water (followed by lactose, fat, protein, then ash)
What is the mold used to make brie cheese?
What is the minimum weight in pounds per gallon of ice cream?
What is the minimum total solids in pounds per gallon of ice cream?
What is the minimum fat content of cream?
not less than 18% milkfat
What is the minimum concentration of milk fat in ice cream?
What is the milk equivalent for butter?
22 kg of milk
What is the major whey protein in milk?
What is the genus of the bacteria found in Cheddar cheese starter cultures?
What is the fat content of low fat yogurt?
What is the enzyme in milk that causes hydrolytic rancidity?
What is the definition of evaporated milk?
Condensed canned whole milk with vitamins A and D added
What is SMUF?
Simulated Milk Ultra-Filtrate
What is normal pressure range in industrial homogenizers? (a) 100 MPa
What is nonfat dry milk?
Product obtained by removal of water from pasteurized skim milk
What is kumiss?
Yeast fermented mare’s milk product
What is filled milk?
Skim milk with vegetable oil added to it
What is evaporated milk?
Liquid product obtained by partial removal of water from milk, >7.5% by weight milkfat, >25% by weight total milk solids
What is enzyme from the lining of calves stomachs that eliminates the protective function of K-casein in micelles and results in formation of a curd?
What is another name for rennin?
What is a milk equivalent?
Kg of milk it takes to give one kg of product
What does MSNF stand for?
Milk solids not fat
What does CCP stands for?
Colloidal Calcium Phosphate
What do the acronyms PMO and HTST stand for?
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, High Temperature Short Time
What compound is found in bovine milk, but not human milk?
What breed of dairy cow gives milk with the highest fat content (on average)
What are typical organisms used in the production of yogurt?
Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilis
What are the two predominant microflora genera of milk powders?
What are the minimum ingredients needed to make process cheeses made?
Cheese, water, emulsifying salts
What are 2 main proteins in milk whey?
Alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin
Sandiness is a defect in ice cream. What causes sandiness?
In which dairy product is acetaldehyde a problem or defect?
In cheese making, what terms describe the solid mass and the liquid phases?
Solid: curd; Liquid: whey
How does rennin act to destabilize the casein micelle?
It divides k-casein into para-k-casein and glycomacropeptide. The loss of glycomacropeptide causes loss of hydration stability.
For which food were microbiological standards first established?
During the manufacture of ice cream, you discover that 1 liter of mix makes 2.0 liters of frozen ice cream. What your overrun percentage?
Chymosin converts kappa casein into what two molecules?
para-kappa-casein and a glycomacropeptide
Cheshire, Gruyere, and Cheddar are examples of what type of cheese?
By federal standards of identity which must contain more fat butter or margarine?
Both must contain 80% or more
According to the FDA pasteurized milk ordinance, what is the maximum coliform count per milliliter for an pasteurized Grade A milk?
According to the FDA pasteurized milk ordinance, what is the maximum bacterial plate count per milliliter in Grade A co-mingled raw milk?
According to the FDA pasteurized milk ordinance, what is the maximum bacterial plate count per milliliter for an individually produced Grade A raw milk?
According to the FDA pasteurized milk ordinance, what is the maximum bacterial plate count per milliliter for an pasteurized Grade A milk?
A food obtained by partial removal of water from a mixture of milk and carbohydrate sweeteners with >8% by weight milkfat and >28% by weight total milk solids is called what?
Sweetened condensed milk
What is the proximate composition of milk?
87.1%, 5% sugar, 4% milkfat, 3% protein, and 0.7% minerals
What is the difference between true buttermilk and cultured buttermilk?
True buttermilk - the liquid expressed in buttermaking (essentially skim milk); Cultured buttermilk - generally skim or low fat milk acidified with a lactic acid bacterial culture
What is the definition of milk?
Lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the milking of one or more healthy cows. Contains not less than 8.25% milk solids and not less than 3.25% milk fat. If added, vit. A>200 IU/quart, vit. D=400 IU/quart
What is the concentration of casein and whey in milk?
Casein: 24-28 g/L; Whey: 5-7 g/L
What is the cause of the stringiness of mozzarella cheese?
Dicalcium paracaseinate is converted to monocalcium paracaseinate by action of rennet; when heated to 54 C or higher, it becomes stringy and retains fat.
What are the USDA grades for butter?
AA, A, B
What are the typical starter culture bacteria used in the production of cottage cheese?
Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis (or subsp cremoris); Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp cremoris
What are the minimum levels of fat, milk-solids-not-fat, and titrable acidity for yogurt?
Not less than 3.25 percent milkfat and not less than 8.25 percent milk solids not fat, and has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.9 percent, expressed as lactic acid
What are the four types of cheese classes according the moisture content?
Soft: 55-80%, semisoft: 45-55%, semihard: 35-45%, hard:
What are the fat contents of light cream, light whipping cream, and heavy cream?
Light Cream: 18-30% milkfat, Light Whipping Cream: 30-36% milkfat, Heavy Cream: >36% milkfat
Name 5 types of dairy cows.
Guernsey, Jersey, Ayshire, Brown Swiss, Shorthorn, Holstein
Name 3 varieties of cheese that ripened principally by blue mold in the interior
Blue cheese (roquefort), gorgonzola, stilton, Wensleydale
Name 3 unripened cheeses.
Cottage, cream, ricotta, farmers, mozzorella, queso blanco, quark, scarmorza, bakers
List the four caseins
kappa-, alpha-s1-, alpha-s2-, beta-casein
Briefly list the seven major steps in the manufacture of cheddar cheese.
Setting the milk, cutting, cooking, draining the whey, (cheddaring) knitting, milling and salting, curing, ripening