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Flashcards in Food Packaging and Processing Deck (66)
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1
Q

Controlled Atmosphere Storage is used commercially in the US for what food products?

A

Apples, pears, cabbage

2
Q

Heating soda ash and sand can make this packaging material.

A

Glass

3
Q

How is a 2 piece can different from a 3 piece can?

A

2 piece cans have no side seams, only a body and lid; 3 piece cans have side seam and consist of a body, lid, and bottom.

4
Q

In packaging, the joining of two or more films with adhesive is called?

A

Lamination

5
Q

In packaging, what is the function of annealing?

A

To relieve stress from non-uniform cooling rates

6
Q

In processing, what is meant by “commercial sterility”?

A

Shelf stable

7
Q

Peter Durand of England patented this important package in 1810.

A

Tin Can

8
Q

What are the three stages in which a gas or vapor permeate through a polymer?

A

Sorption, Diffusion, and Desorption

9
Q

What are three common defects in glass containers?

A

Bird-swings, spikes, wavy appearance

10
Q

What are two organisms that can cause flat sour spoilage of canned foods?

A

Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus coagulans

11
Q

What are two processes used to make jars?

A

Press and blow, blow and blow

12
Q

What colors of glass bottles have the highest and the lowest light transmittance?

A

Highest – clear/flint, lowest – brown

13
Q

What do MAP and CAP stand for?

A

Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

14
Q

What do the letters WVTR stand for?

A

Water vapor transmission rate

15
Q

What does a headspace scavenger such as ascorbate do in a container?

A

Reduces oxygen

16
Q

What does CPET stand for?

A

Crystallized Polyethylene Terephthalate

17
Q

What does IQF stand for?

A

Individually quick frozen

18
Q

What enzyme activity is most commonly used to determine the adequacy of blanching vegetable for freezing to ensure stability during storage?

A

Peroxidase

19
Q

What general class of packaging material is used in aseptic brick packs and pringle cans?

A

Laminates

20
Q

What is another name for PVDC?

A

Saran

21
Q

What is form, fill, and seal operation (FFS)?

A

An operation where there is a continuous process of forming the containers without deforming the packaging material, fill with product, and seal

22
Q

What is the difference between thermoforming and FFS?

A

Thermoforming deforms the packaging material whereas FFS does not

23
Q

What is the function of activated carbon or potassium permanganate in active food packaging?

A

Absorbing ethylene

24
Q

What is the function of silica gel in active food packaging?

A

Absorbing moisture

25
Q

What is the process of lowering the temperature of water below its freezing point without crystallization?

A

Super-cooling or undercooling

26
Q

What is thermoforming?

A

A process where containers are formed from a reel of packaging material by heating the plastics to the softening point and deforming it to the desired shape

27
Q

What metals make up German silver?

A

Copper, silver, steel

28
Q

What monomers are used to form PET?

A

Ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid

29
Q

What packaging material has the best gas barrier?

A

EVOH (ethyl vinyl alcohol)

30
Q

What packaging material is used to make plastic soft drink bottles?

A

Polyethylene terepthalate (PET)

31
Q

What process involves the formation of continuous sheets of controlled thickness by squeezing a heated plastic material between two or more horizontal rollers?

A

Calendering

32
Q

What process is done prior to freezing or dehydration to inactivate enzymes?

A

Blanching

33
Q

What process started the canned cola industry?

A

CO2 carbonation

34
Q

What was the first synthetic polymer to be invented?

A

Cellophane, by polymerizing cellulose

35
Q

Who was responsible for initiating the modern frozen food industry during the 1920’s?

A

Clarence Birdseye

36
Q

Why are welded joints stronger than soldered joints?

A

Welding uses a high voltage, thus fusing the metal overlap and forming a solid joint whereas soldering uses a hook with some glue material in it

37
Q

Why is packaging material laminated?

A

To increase barrier properties

38
Q

Why is quality of food better in flexible retort pouches than in conventional cans?

A

Thinner profile means the less time to reach sterilizing treatment at center of pouch.

39
Q

Why would it be beneficial to modify the atmosphere of a package that contains a food with polyunsaturated fatty acids with nitrogen?

A

Reduce oxidate rancidity

40
Q

Name 3 active package solutions.

A

Oxygen scavenger, Time-temperature indicator, Antimicrobial

41
Q

Name 3 tests done on packages to determine mechanical properties.

A

Tension, compression, bursting, tearing, impact

42
Q

Name three functions of packaging in protecting food from deterioration.

A

Recontamination with microorganisms, attack by insects and rodents, moisture gain or loss, air and light, and mechanical abuse

43
Q

Name two plastic forming techniques.

A

Injection molding; blow molding; extrusion blown film; thermoforming

44
Q

What are 2 defects that can occur to cans during retorting or cooling?

A

Buckling - gas production, overfilling, insufficient blanching, improper retorting; Paneling - too high closing temperature, slack filling, excess external pressure

45
Q

What are four methods for measuring gas permeability in food packaging?

A

Pressure Increase Method, Volume Increase Method, Concentration Increase Method, and Detector Film Method

46
Q

What are four methods for measuring gas permeability in food packaging?

A

Pressure Increase Method, Volume Increase Method, Concentration Increase Method, and Detector Film Method

47
Q

What are three different methods for blow molding plastic containers?

A

Extrusion, injection, stretch

48
Q

What are three ways to produce polymers/plastics?

A

Extrusion, blow molding, injection molding, compression molding, thermoforming, calendaring, solution casting

49
Q

What are two methods by which aseptic packages are commercially sterilized?

A

Hydrogen peroxide rinse, steam, dry heat

50
Q

What does EVOH stand for?

A

Ethylene-vinyl alcohol

51
Q

What does PE stand for?

A

Polyethylene

52
Q

What does LDPS stand for?

A

Low density polyethylene

53
Q

What does LLDPE stand for?

A

Linear low density polyethylene

54
Q

What does PP stand for?

A

Polypropylene

55
Q

What does PET stand for?

A

Polyethylene terephthalate

56
Q

What does HDPE stand for?

A

High density polyethylene

57
Q

What does PVC stand for?

A

Poly vinyl chloride

58
Q

What food preservation technique did NASA use to reduce weight during space flights?

A

Freeze Drying

59
Q

What Is “a semisolid food made from not less than 45 parts by weight of fruit juice ingredient to 55 parts by weight of sugar and concentrated to not less than 65% soluble solids”?

A

Jelly

60
Q

What Is the name of the electron tube within a magnetic field which produces high frequency radiant energy in microwave heating?

A

Magnetron

61
Q

What thermal process type was approved by FDA for the treatment of low-acid foods in hermetic containers in 2009?

A

Microwave sterilization

62
Q

How many dried cacao beans does it take to make one pound of chocolate?

A

400

63
Q

What are the elements that contribute to hard water?

A

Calcium and Magnesium

64
Q

What is the name of the chemical process used to remove calcium and magnesium from water?

A

Ion exchange

65
Q

Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica are all pests in food processing operations. What is their common name?

A

German cockroach, American cockroach, Housefly

66
Q

What percent of the world’s ice free land is used to grow crops and livestock?

A

40%