Flashcards in Fruits and Vegetables Deck (87):
What is the purpose of 2-chloroethylphosphoric acid, also called ethephon?
It forms ethylene when metabolized by the plant which causes ripening prior to harvest
Why do you add aluminum sulfate to pickles?
Why are fruits or vegetables often heated prior to maceration for juice production?
To inactivate enzymes which may cause undesirable quality changes.
Who is the president associated with peanuts?
Who discovered beet sugar? Look up on google
Olivier de Serres, French botanist, 1590
Which of the following is a non-climacteric fruit? A. Avocado, B. Grapefruit, C. Banana, D. Mango
Which of the following avacado variety makes up 95% of the California crop: A. Bacon, B. Fuerte, C. Hass, D. Zutano
Which mineral is found in high quantities in bananas?
Which country produces the most potatoes and watermelons?
Which amino acid starts the biosynthesis of ethylene in fruits and vegetables?
What year was microwave popcorn first available?
What vegetables are known as earth apples?
What type of food spoilage does Erwinia carotovora cause in vegetables?
Soft rot ( of vegetables)
What type of enzymes are commonly added to fruit prior to juice production?
Pectic enzymes (polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, cellulases)
What problem may arise when potato tubers are taken from cold storage and immediately processed?
Cold sweetening that causes maillard browning
What part of the plant is the potato tuber derived?
What method is used to dry most fruit in California?
What is the respiration burst associated with the fruit ripening process?
What is the purpose of the "hot break process" in tomato processing?
Inactivate PME - pectin methyl esterase
What is the purpose of adding sodium aluminum sulfate or potassium aluminum sulfate to pickles?
Improve crispness and firmness
What is the original name of the kiwi fruit?
What is the name of the hottest pepper (sometimes called the "Ghost Pepper") in the world?
What is the name for the type of starch obtained from the cassava plant?
What is the major alkaloid in the Irish potato?
What is the major acid in peaches and apricots?
What is the key enzyme involved in tissue softening of tomatoes?
What is the dominant biopolymer in the middle lamella?
What is indicated by the smoky or dull-yellow appearance of a banana peel?
What group of compounds is mainly responsible for the purple color of Concord grapes?
What fruit has a fat content that is about 20 times the average of other fruits?
What enzyme's activity is most commonly used to determine the adequacy of blanching vegetables for freezing to ensure stability during storage?
What does “lyonnaise” mean?
Made with onions
What compound to red bell peppers is in greater amounts than in green bell peppers?
Lycopene, Carotene, Vitamin C
What company is the number one producer of baked beans in the US?
Bush Brothers and Company
What class of carotenoids contains an oxygenated hydrocarbon structure?
What are the two main reaction sequences for which plant energy is derived?
TCA cycle and EMP sequence
What are some positive effects of pre cooling of vegetables and fruit?
Slow degradation reduce/ slow rotting, reduce wilting
What 3 methods are used to capture the flavor and characteristics of botonicals to prepare all extracts, oleoresins, and essential oils?
Infusion or maceration, Percolation, Distillation
Two types of reactions that can cause the color of carotenoids to change during thermal processing of vegetables are?
Isomerization and oxidation
This spiny green fruit of Southeast Asia has an odor that has been described as "sewer-like."
The synthesis of starch takes place in which specialized organelle(s)?
Reserve granule in Amyloplasts and Transient granules in Chloroplast
The hot break process is commonly practiced in the manufacture of tomato paste and tomato juice products. This involves quickly heating the products to about 82°C. What enzyme does this process seek to inactivate?
Pectin methyl esterase
Solanum lycopersicum is the scientific name for what?
Seeds from Phaseolus vulgarisare commonly known as what?
Common Navy Beans
Runner and Virginia are varieties of what food?
Recommended storage temperature for potatoes is more than 25C, why?
Lower temperatures result in more reducing sugar formation creating the potential for browning
Prunus armeniaca is the scientific name for?
Prior to dehydration, many fruits are exposed to a type of gas in order to prevent microbial growth and browning. What is that gas?
Sulfur; Sulfur dioxide?
Potatoes are recondition to alter what compositional component?
Reducing sugar content
Name the term which describes fruits showing a temporary rise in respiration rate after harvest?
Name the principal organic acid in apples.
Name 4 sources of lycopene besides tomato
Watermelon, Pink Grapefruit, Papaya, Pink Guava, Rosehips, Goji Berries (Wolfberry)
Lactuca sativa is the scientific name for?
In the U.S., which major food group is the most consumed?
Fruits and vegetables
In the Southern USA, black-eyed peas are eaten on New Year's Day as a symbol of what?
In the chlorophyll molecule, what element is located at the center of the porphyrin ring?
In plant, ethylene is synthesized from what amino acid?
In cells that make up fruits and vegetables, the osmotic pressure balanced with inward pressure of extended cell walls is called?
Does a cup of spinach have more, the same, or less calcium than a cup of ice cream?
More (spinach= 244 mg; ice cream = 176 mg)
Define a ripe fruit?
When the fruit is at it’s optimum color, size, and flavor
Define a mature fruit?
When a fruit is picked it is ready to eat or will be ready after further ripening
Daucus carotais the scientific name for?
Cooking green vegetables in an acidic medium results in the formation of what olive-brown pigment?
Cooked vegetables are easier to dehydrate than raw vegetables, why?
Blanching of vegetables increases cell permeability to moisture
Brassica oleracea is the scientific name for?
Bell peppers are the only species of Capsicum that do not produce what substance?
Apium graveolens is the scientific name for?
Allium cepa is the scientific name for?
A high molecular weight polyester deposited in the waxy cuticle of some plant epidermal cells is?
1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is the precursor of what plant hormone?
What is the most important family of plants used as food? Give two examples.
Poaceae (true grasses); wheat, rye, oats, corn, millet
What are three varieties of olives used for food and oil?
Mission; Ascolano; Seveillano; Manzanillo
What are the five most frequently consumed fruits in the U.S?
Banana, apple, watermelon, orange, and cantaloupe
Name two industrial methods for peeling fruit and vegetables
Caustic or lye; steam; hot water; abrasive
Name three other vegetables that are the same species as head cabbage?
Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, kohlrabi, kale, broccoli
Name three items used to reduce oxidation in fruits?
Ascorbic acid, sulfur dioxide, and sugar syrups
Name five each of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits
Climacteric: Apple, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Breadfruit, Fig, Guava, Mango, Papaya, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Plum Sapote, Tomato, Watermelon. Nonclimacteric: Blueberry, Cacao, Cherry, Cucumber, Grape, Grapefruit, Lemon, Litchi, Melon, Olive, Orange, Pineapple, Strawberry, Tamarillo
Name 2 true fruits that are referred to as vegetables
Tomato, cucumbers, peppers, corn
List five of the eight vegetables found in Campbell’s V-8 juice?
Tomato, carrot, celery, beet, parsley, lettuce, watercress, spinach
Give 4 reasons to use heat blanching in vegetable processing?
To inactivate enzymes; kill or slow down microbial growth; remove some GAS; to soften vegetables; others?
Describe the mechanism by which CaCl2 firms plant tissues.
Divalent Ca binds the carboxyl groups of adjacent pectin polymers forming bridges and tightening the structure
Anacardium occidentale is the species of tree producing what nut?
How is Hominy made?
Boiling corn in lye to remove husks.
Name five foods that are naturally and usually blue or purple.
Blackberries, Blueberries, Black currants, Elderberries, Grapes, plums, eggplant
15. What is the California standard variety cultivar of pomegranate?
Cynarine is a biologically active hydroxycinnamic acid found in what vegetable?