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Flashcards in Fruits and Vegetables Deck (87):
1

What is the purpose of 2-chloroethylphosphoric acid, also called ethephon?

It forms ethylene when metabolized by the plant which causes ripening prior to harvest

2

Why do you add aluminum sulfate to pickles?

Increase firmness

3

Why are fruits or vegetables often heated prior to maceration for juice production?

To inactivate enzymes which may cause undesirable quality changes.

4

Who is the president associated with peanuts?

Jimmy Carter

5

Who discovered beet sugar? Look up on google

Olivier de Serres, French botanist, 1590

6

Which of the following is a non-climacteric fruit? A. Avocado, B. Grapefruit, C. Banana, D. Mango

B. Grapefruit

7

Which of the following avacado variety makes up 95% of the California crop: A. Bacon, B. Fuerte, C. Hass, D. Zutano

C. Hass

8

Which mineral is found in high quantities in bananas?

Potassium

9

Which country produces the most potatoes and watermelons?

China

10

Which amino acid starts the biosynthesis of ethylene in fruits and vegetables?

Methionine

11

What year was microwave popcorn first available?

1984

12

What vegetables are known as earth apples?

Potatoes

13

What type of food spoilage does Erwinia carotovora cause in vegetables?

Soft rot ( of vegetables)

14

What type of enzymes are commonly added to fruit prior to juice production?

Pectic enzymes (polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, cellulases)

15

What problem may arise when potato tubers are taken from cold storage and immediately processed?

Cold sweetening that causes maillard browning

16

What part of the plant is the potato tuber derived?

Stem

17

What method is used to dry most fruit in California?

Sun drying

18

What is the respiration burst associated with the fruit ripening process?

Climacteric rise

19

What is the purpose of the "hot break process" in tomato processing?

Inactivate PME - pectin methyl esterase

20

What is the purpose of adding sodium aluminum sulfate or potassium aluminum sulfate to pickles?

Improve crispness and firmness

21

What is the original name of the kiwi fruit?

Chinese gooseberry

22

What is the name of the hottest pepper (sometimes called the "Ghost Pepper") in the world?

Bhut Jolokia

23

What is the name for the type of starch obtained from the cassava plant?

Tapioca

24

What is the major alkaloid in the Irish potato?

Solanine

25

What is the major acid in peaches and apricots?

Malic

26

What is the key enzyme involved in tissue softening of tomatoes?

Polygalacturonase

27

What is the dominant biopolymer in the middle lamella?

(Proto)Pectin

28

What is indicated by the smoky or dull-yellow appearance of a banana peel?

Chill injury

29

What group of compounds is mainly responsible for the purple color of Concord grapes?

Anthocyanins

30

What fruit has a fat content that is about 20 times the average of other fruits?

Avocado

31

What enzyme's activity is most commonly used to determine the adequacy of blanching vegetables for freezing to ensure stability during storage?

Peroxidase

32

What does “lyonnaise” mean?

Made with onions

33

What compound to red bell peppers is in greater amounts than in green bell peppers?

Lycopene, Carotene, Vitamin C

34

What company is the number one producer of baked beans in the US?

Bush Brothers and Company

35

What class of carotenoids contains an oxygenated hydrocarbon structure?

Xanthophylls

36

What are the two main reaction sequences for which plant energy is derived?

TCA cycle and EMP sequence

37

What are some positive effects of pre cooling of vegetables and fruit?

Slow degradation reduce/ slow rotting, reduce wilting

38

What 3 methods are used to capture the flavor and characteristics of botonicals to prepare all extracts, oleoresins, and essential oils?

Infusion or maceration, Percolation, Distillation

39

Two types of reactions that can cause the color of carotenoids to change during thermal processing of vegetables are?

Isomerization and oxidation

40

This spiny green fruit of Southeast Asia has an odor that has been described as "sewer-like."

Durian

41

The synthesis of starch takes place in which specialized organelle(s)?

Reserve granule in Amyloplasts and Transient granules in Chloroplast

42

The hot break process is commonly practiced in the manufacture of tomato paste and tomato juice products. This involves quickly heating the products to about 82°C. What enzyme does this process seek to inactivate?

Pectin methyl esterase

43

Solanum lycopersicum is the scientific name for what?

Garden tomato

44

Seeds from Phaseolus vulgarisare commonly known as what?

Common Navy Beans

45

Runner and Virginia are varieties of what food?

Peanuts

46

Recommended storage temperature for potatoes is more than 25C, why?

Lower temperatures result in more reducing sugar formation creating the potential for browning

47

Prunus armeniaca is the scientific name for?

Apricot

48

Prior to dehydration, many fruits are exposed to a type of gas in order to prevent microbial growth and browning. What is that gas?

Sulfur; Sulfur dioxide?

49

Potatoes are recondition to alter what compositional component?

Reducing sugar content

50

Name the term which describes fruits showing a temporary rise in respiration rate after harvest?

Climacteric

51

Name the principal organic acid in apples.

Malic

52

Name 4 sources of lycopene besides tomato

Watermelon, Pink Grapefruit, Papaya, Pink Guava, Rosehips, Goji Berries (Wolfberry)

53

Lactuca sativa is the scientific name for?

Lettuce

54

In the U.S., which major food group is the most consumed?

Fruits and vegetables

55

In the Southern USA, black-eyed peas are eaten on New Year's Day as a symbol of what?

Luck

56

In the chlorophyll molecule, what element is located at the center of the porphyrin ring?

Magnesium

57

In plant, ethylene is synthesized from what amino acid?

Methionine

58

In cells that make up fruits and vegetables, the osmotic pressure balanced with inward pressure of extended cell walls is called?

Turgor

59

Does a cup of spinach have more, the same, or less calcium than a cup of ice cream?

More (spinach= 244 mg; ice cream = 176 mg)

60

Define a ripe fruit?

When the fruit is at it’s optimum color, size, and flavor

61

Define a mature fruit?

When a fruit is picked it is ready to eat or will be ready after further ripening

62

Daucus carotais the scientific name for?

Carrots

63

Cooking green vegetables in an acidic medium results in the formation of what olive-brown pigment?

Pheophytin

64

Cooked vegetables are easier to dehydrate than raw vegetables, why?

Blanching of vegetables increases cell permeability to moisture

65

Brassica oleracea is the scientific name for?

Cabbage

66

Bell peppers are the only species of Capsicum that do not produce what substance?

Capsaicin

67

Apium graveolens is the scientific name for?

Celery

68

Allium cepa is the scientific name for?

Onion

69

A high molecular weight polyester deposited in the waxy cuticle of some plant epidermal cells is?

Cutin

70

1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is the precursor of what plant hormone?

Ethylene

71

What is the most important family of plants used as food? Give two examples.

Poaceae (true grasses); wheat, rye, oats, corn, millet

72

What are three varieties of olives used for food and oil?

Mission; Ascolano; Seveillano; Manzanillo

73

What are the five most frequently consumed fruits in the U.S?

Banana, apple, watermelon, orange, and cantaloupe

74

Name two industrial methods for peeling fruit and vegetables

Caustic or lye; steam; hot water; abrasive

75

Name three other vegetables that are the same species as head cabbage?

Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, kohlrabi, kale, broccoli

76

Name three items used to reduce oxidation in fruits?

Ascorbic acid, sulfur dioxide, and sugar syrups

77

Name five each of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits

Climacteric: Apple, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Breadfruit, Fig, Guava, Mango, Papaya, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Plum Sapote, Tomato, Watermelon. Nonclimacteric: Blueberry, Cacao, Cherry, Cucumber, Grape, Grapefruit, Lemon, Litchi, Melon, Olive, Orange, Pineapple, Strawberry, Tamarillo

78

Name 2 true fruits that are referred to as vegetables

Tomato, cucumbers, peppers, corn

79

List five of the eight vegetables found in Campbell’s V-8 juice?

Tomato, carrot, celery, beet, parsley, lettuce, watercress, spinach

80

Give 4 reasons to use heat blanching in vegetable processing?

To inactivate enzymes; kill or slow down microbial growth; remove some GAS; to soften vegetables; others?

81

Describe the mechanism by which CaCl2 firms plant tissues.

Divalent Ca binds the carboxyl groups of adjacent pectin polymers forming bridges and tightening the structure

82

Anacardium occidentale is the species of tree producing what nut?

Cashews

83

How is Hominy made?

Boiling corn in lye to remove husks.

84

Name five foods that are naturally and usually blue or purple.

Blackberries, Blueberries, Black currants, Elderberries, Grapes, plums, eggplant

85

15. What is the California standard variety cultivar of pomegranate?

Wonderful

86

Cynarine is a biologically active hydroxycinnamic acid found in what vegetable?

artichokes

87

Cucumis is a genus of tendril-bearing plants. Give 2 examples of the common names of members of the Cucumis family.

Cucumber, Cantaloupe, Honeydew Melon, casaba melon, muskmelon