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Flashcards in Sensory Deck (96)
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1
Q

According to IFT guidelines, a minimum of how many panelists are required for a panel trained in descriptive profile analysis?

A

4

2
Q

As suggested by Shallenberger and co-workers in 1967, what does the AH-B hypothesis relate to?

A

Sweetness

3
Q

France, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, and Bulgaria have something called “King Cake”; what does the “King Cake” represent?

A

King Cake is associated with the festival of Epiphany in the Christmas season

4
Q

Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=40, a=-10, b*=-40

A

Yellow

5
Q

Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=50, a=0, b*=-0

A

Gray

6
Q

Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=50, a=50, b*=-50

A

Purple

7
Q

In knife skills what is the proper name for the waffle cut that is commonly used for potatoes?

A

Gaufrette

8
Q

In sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing?

A

Hedonic scale (usually 9 pts)

9
Q

In this discrimination test of sensory evaluation panelists must choose whether or not two coded samples are different

A

Paired comparison

10
Q

J.E. Amoore suggested that odor is a function of a molecules what?

A

Shape

11
Q

Name a sensory method that compensates for response bias.

A

Signal detection

12
Q

Name the compound that may taste like a maraschino cherry to some and like almond to others?

A

Benzaldehyde

13
Q

Name three methods for cooling foods.

A

Ice-water bath, Ice paddle, Blast chiller, Tumble Chiller

14
Q

Once properly heated, hot foods must be held at temperatures of __________or higher?

A

135 °F (57 °C)

15
Q

Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called affective tests. Give an example.

A

Ranking, Hedonic, Scaling

16
Q

The Flavor Profile has become a standard approach to the sensory measurement of aromas and flavors. What company developed this method in 1948

A

Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA

17
Q

The process of cooking sugars is properly known as what?

A

Caramelization

18
Q

The results of what sensory test are often plotted to give a flavor profile

A

Quantitative Descriptive Analysis

19
Q

What are the basic levels a chef is called?

A

Certified ; Executive; Master

20
Q

What are the components of a Munsell system?

A

Hue, chroma, intensity

21
Q

What are the major hotness causing compounds in black and red pepper?

A

Black – piperine; Red – capsacin

22
Q

What are the major sensory quality characteristics of foods?

A

Flavor factors, appearance factors, and kinesthetic factors

23
Q

What are the three primary categories determining food quality?

A

Appearance, texture, and flavor

24
Q

What are the three primary colors?

A

Red, green, blue

25
Q

What are the three types of sensory tests?

A

Discrimination, descriptive, and affective (preference)

26
Q

What color is observed when red, green, and blue pigments are mixed in equal amounts?

A

Black

27
Q

What compound can be smelled on a person’s breath during ketosis?

A

Acetone

28
Q

What compound found in toothpaste surpresses the sweetness in orange juice make it taste bitter?

A

Sodium lauryl sulfate

29
Q

What does “Nappe” mean?

A

Thickness of sauce on the back of a spoon

30
Q

What does ACF stand for and what does it certify?

A

American Culinary Foundation; Chefs

31
Q

What does the acronym FIFO stand for in food receiving and storage?

A

First-in, first-out

32
Q

What is a “bouquet garni”?

A

This is a collection of aromatics that is typically tied together in either a: sachet, or leak greens, or celery stock.

33
Q

What is a “Mother Sauce” or “Leading Sauces”?

A

These are the basic sauces in which many other sauces are derived.

34
Q

What is a “quick bread”?

A

A quick is named because of the small amount preparation and unlike yeast bread does not involve any proofing or rising. Of course does not have any yeast.

35
Q

What is a consommé?

A

(Escoffier and Charme); Intensely flavored amber color clear liquid with a distinct flavored body-a clarified stock-a clear soup made from clarified stock by using meats and egg white, vegetables-the “RAFT”.

36
Q

What is a hedonic sensory panel evaluation?

A

A panel where the judges are asked if they like or dislike a food or foods and often how much it is liked or disliked

37
Q

What is a mirepoix and what does it consist of?

A

50% onions; 25% carrots; 25% celery

38
Q

What is Ageusia?

A

Lack or impairment of sensitivity to taste

39
Q

What is Agnosia?

A

Loss of ability to recognize smells while the sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss

40
Q

What is Amarogen?

A

Bitter producing compounds

41
Q

What is Auguste Escoffier known for creating?

A

Brigade system; Mother sauces; Le Guide Cullinaire

42
Q

What is deglutition?

A

The act or process of swallowing food

43
Q

What is responsible for “warmed over flavor”

A

Fat oxidation

44
Q

What is responsible for the trigeminal senses?

A

Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and nasal cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaicin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as a protection evice against harmful chemicals

45
Q

What is taste sensation may be described as “savory”?

A

Umami

46
Q

What is the bitter substance in orange and lemon peel

A

Hesperidin

47
Q

What is the most common thickening agent in most sauces?

A

Roux

48
Q

What is the muffin method & what is it used for?

A

measurement of dry and wet ingredients separately, then quickly mixing the two; quick bread, muffins

49
Q

What is the name for the tall chefs hat with folds?

A

Toque

50
Q

What is the name of beer that is typically brewed in March and stored until fall?

A

Oktoberfest/Marizen

51
Q

What is the name of the classification systems for chefs?

A

Michelin star system

52
Q

What is the name of the scale used to describe the hotness of peppers?

A

Scoville

53
Q

What is the principal bitter component in navel and Valencia oranges that causes the delayed bitterness defect in orange juice?

A

Limonine

54
Q

What is the proper term for cooking of starches?

A

Gelatinization

55
Q

What is the purpose of searing meat?

A

For maillard browning and caramelization to improve the meat flavor, texture, and appearance; Does not seal in the juices.

56
Q

What is the reaction time for a taste response?

A

25 msec

57
Q

What is the standard against which all sweeteners are measured in terms of quality of taste and taste profile?

A

Sucrose

58
Q

What is the term used to describe the least energy capable of producing a sensation?

A

Absolute threshold

59
Q

What is the typical flavor of pyrazine?

A

Roasted or nutty

60
Q

What maturity index is utilized to indicate the desired flavor of oranges?

A

Sugar/acid ration

61
Q

What substance formed during the roasting of malt, coffee, cocoa, and grains has the ability to enhance sweetness and act as an antioxidant?

A

Maltol

62
Q

What taste are the taste buds on the back of the tongue most sensitive to?

A

Bitter

63
Q

What type of cooking relies on radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food, where it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat?

A

Microwave cooking

64
Q

What type of cooking uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cooks the food?

A

Infrared cooking

65
Q

What type of dry-heat cooking methods uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods?

A

Broiling

66
Q

What type of pressure should a sensory evaluation room have?

A

Positive

67
Q

When a thermometer is calibrated using the ice-point method, it should be adjusted to what temperature after the stem or probe has been placed in the ice water?

A

32 °F (0°C)

68
Q

When foods are reheated, the internal temperature should quickly reach or exceed what temperature in order to kill any bacteria that may have grown during storage?

A

165 °F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours

69
Q

Which descriptive sensory analysis technique uses consumers instead of trained judges?

A

Free choice profiling

70
Q

Which is sweetest: glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose?

A

Fructose

71
Q

Which of the following describes the type of place cockroaches are typically found? A) Cold, dry, and light B) Warm, dry, and light C) Cold, moist, and dark D) Warm, moist, and dark

A

D) Warm, moist, and dark

72
Q

Which papillae on the tongue do not have taste buds but are for touch sensation?

A

Filiform

73
Q

Which sensory test would you use to determine whether Coke is sweeter than Pepsi?

A

Paired comparison for sweetness

74
Q

Who is credit with the invention of Haute/Grande cuisine?

A

Antoine Carême

75
Q

Who was the first person to discover the orientation of sweeteners?

A

Kier

76
Q

Batonnet, Tournée, Julienne and Chiffonade are what?

A

Knife cuts used in culinary preparation

77
Q

Describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma.

A

Hue: color; Value: reflectiveness or brightness of color; Chroma: intensity of the color with respect to the amount of white light mixed in

78
Q

Name eight knife cuts.

A

Batonnet; Julianne; Massive wand; Tournée; Rondelle; Brunoise; (Chiffonade); (Flute)

79
Q

Name four types of temperature probes used in food service.

A

Immersion Probes, Surface Probes, Penetration Probes, Air Probes

80
Q

Rank the following types of peppers by the amount of heat produced from least to greatest: jalepeno, bell, habenero, tabasco.

A

Bell, jalepeno, tabasco, habenero

81
Q

The most common thickening agent in most sauces is “roux”? What are the three types of roux?

A

White, Blond, Brown

82
Q

What are 3 coordinates in the CIE system or color solid?

A

x, y ,z

83
Q

What are the “Mother Sauces” or “Leading Sauces”?

A

a. Espangnol/demi-glace/brown; b. Marinara/Tomato; c. Warm Butter/Hollandaise/Béarnaise; d. Velouté/Béchamel/White; e. Emulsion Sauces: mayonnaise

84
Q

What are the 5 taste sensations?

A

Sweet, bitter, sour, salty, umami

85
Q

What are the four ingredients in yeast bread?

A

Wheat, water, salt, yeast

86
Q

What color wine can be made from a Chardonnay grape?

A

White, red, or rose

87
Q

What is a Louisiana Style King Cake and what time of the year is it usually made in the US?

A

Cinnamon-roll like cake inside with sugary icing with traditional Mardi Gras colored sprinkles (yellow, green, and purple) on the outside; a small trinket is placed in the middle of the cake and is usually a small plastic baby; Mardi Gras

88
Q

What is the difference between a duo-trio test and a triangle test?

A

Triangle all three unknown, find the two alike; duo-trio – two samples compared to a reference

89
Q

What is the difference between an herb and a spice?

A

Spice: Is the fruit of the plant. Spices are the berries, fruits, flowers, bark, seeds, and roots of plants or trees.; Herb: Is the leafy part of the plant: leaves, stems, buds, or flowers.

90
Q

What is the difference between poaching, simmering, and boiling of water?

A

The temperature - Poaching: 160°F-180°F; Simmering: 185°F-200°F; Boiling: 212°F; *note: Foods simmer and poach at different temperatures.

91
Q

What is the process of making a consommé?

A

Addition of brown meat, vegetables, and egg whites added to a stock. Placing the stockpot half way on the burner to create a convection of the liquid. The raft clarifies the stock.

92
Q

What molecules are responsible for coconut and peach odor?

A

Nonalactone – coconut; undecalactone – peach

93
Q

What is the cooking utensil used for slicing and cutting juliennes?

A

Mandoline

94
Q

What is a preparation of an egg white that is used as an adhesive for bookbinding and gilding called?

A

Glair

95
Q

What affective test used to gather information on consumer acceptability is typically used with children?

A

Facial Hedonic Scale

96
Q

When conducting a paired comparison test, when should you use a two-tailed test?

A

When you are not sure there is a difference