According to IFT guidelines, a minimum of how many panelists are required for a panel trained in descriptive profile analysis?
As suggested by Shallenberger and co-workers in 1967, what does the AH-B hypothesis relate to?
France, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, and Bulgaria have something called “King Cake”; what does the “King Cake” represent?
King Cake is associated with the festival of Epiphany in the Christmas season
Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=40, a=-10, b*=-40
Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=50, a=0, b*=-0
Give the resultant color for the following Lab* score: L=50, a=50, b*=-50
In knife skills what is the proper name for the waffle cut that is commonly used for potatoes?
In sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing?
Hedonic scale (usually 9 pts)
In this discrimination test of sensory evaluation panelists must choose whether or not two coded samples are different
J.E. Amoore suggested that odor is a function of a molecules what?
Name a sensory method that compensates for response bias.
Name the compound that may taste like a maraschino cherry to some and like almond to others?
Name three methods for cooling foods.
Ice-water bath, Ice paddle, Blast chiller, Tumble Chiller
Once properly heated, hot foods must be held at temperatures of __________or higher?
135 °F (57 °C)
Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called affective tests. Give an example.
Ranking, Hedonic, Scaling
The Flavor Profile has become a standard approach to the sensory measurement of aromas and flavors. What company developed this method in 1948
Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA
The process of cooking sugars is properly known as what?
The results of what sensory test are often plotted to give a flavor profile
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis
What are the basic levels a chef is called?
Certified ; Executive; Master
What are the components of a Munsell system?
Hue, chroma, intensity
What are the major hotness causing compounds in black and red pepper?
Black – piperine; Red – capsacin
What are the major sensory quality characteristics of foods?
Flavor factors, appearance factors, and kinesthetic factors
What are the three primary categories determining food quality?
Appearance, texture, and flavor
What are the three primary colors?
Red, green, blue
What are the three types of sensory tests?
Discrimination, descriptive, and affective (preference)
What color is observed when red, green, and blue pigments are mixed in equal amounts?
What compound can be smelled on a person’s breath during ketosis?
What compound found in toothpaste surpresses the sweetness in orange juice make it taste bitter?
Sodium lauryl sulfate
What does “Nappe” mean?
Thickness of sauce on the back of a spoon
What does ACF stand for and what does it certify?
American Culinary Foundation; Chefs
What does the acronym FIFO stand for in food receiving and storage?
What is a “bouquet garni”?
This is a collection of aromatics that is typically tied together in either a: sachet, or leak greens, or celery stock.
What is a “Mother Sauce” or “Leading Sauces”?
These are the basic sauces in which many other sauces are derived.
What is a “quick bread”?
A quick is named because of the small amount preparation and unlike yeast bread does not involve any proofing or rising. Of course does not have any yeast.
What is a consommé?
(Escoffier and Charme); Intensely flavored amber color clear liquid with a distinct flavored body-a clarified stock-a clear soup made from clarified stock by using meats and egg white, vegetables-the “RAFT”.
What is a hedonic sensory panel evaluation?
A panel where the judges are asked if they like or dislike a food or foods and often how much it is liked or disliked
What is a mirepoix and what does it consist of?
50% onions; 25% carrots; 25% celery
What is Ageusia?
Lack or impairment of sensitivity to taste
What is Agnosia?
Loss of ability to recognize smells while the sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss
What is Amarogen?
Bitter producing compounds
What is Auguste Escoffier known for creating?
Brigade system; Mother sauces; Le Guide Cullinaire
What is deglutition?
The act or process of swallowing food
What is responsible for “warmed over flavor”
What is responsible for the trigeminal senses?
Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and nasal cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaicin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as a protection evice against harmful chemicals
What is taste sensation may be described as “savory”?
What is the bitter substance in orange and lemon peel
What is the most common thickening agent in most sauces?
What is the muffin method & what is it used for?
measurement of dry and wet ingredients separately, then quickly mixing the two; quick bread, muffins
What is the name for the tall chefs hat with folds?
What is the name of beer that is typically brewed in March and stored until fall?
What is the name of the classification systems for chefs?
Michelin star system
What is the name of the scale used to describe the hotness of peppers?
What is the principal bitter component in navel and Valencia oranges that causes the delayed bitterness defect in orange juice?
What is the proper term for cooking of starches?
What is the purpose of searing meat?
For maillard browning and caramelization to improve the meat flavor, texture, and appearance; Does not seal in the juices.
What is the reaction time for a taste response?
What is the standard against which all sweeteners are measured in terms of quality of taste and taste profile?
What is the term used to describe the least energy capable of producing a sensation?
What is the typical flavor of pyrazine?
Roasted or nutty
What maturity index is utilized to indicate the desired flavor of oranges?
What substance formed during the roasting of malt, coffee, cocoa, and grains has the ability to enhance sweetness and act as an antioxidant?
What taste are the taste buds on the back of the tongue most sensitive to?
What type of cooking relies on radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food, where it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat?
What type of cooking uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cooks the food?
What type of dry-heat cooking methods uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods?
What type of pressure should a sensory evaluation room have?
When a thermometer is calibrated using the ice-point method, it should be adjusted to what temperature after the stem or probe has been placed in the ice water?
32 °F (0°C)
When foods are reheated, the internal temperature should quickly reach or exceed what temperature in order to kill any bacteria that may have grown during storage?
165 °F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours
Which descriptive sensory analysis technique uses consumers instead of trained judges?
Free choice profiling
Which is sweetest: glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose?
Which of the following describes the type of place cockroaches are typically found? A) Cold, dry, and light B) Warm, dry, and light C) Cold, moist, and dark D) Warm, moist, and dark
D) Warm, moist, and dark
Which papillae on the tongue do not have taste buds but are for touch sensation?
Which sensory test would you use to determine whether Coke is sweeter than Pepsi?
Paired comparison for sweetness
Who is credit with the invention of Haute/Grande cuisine?
Who was the first person to discover the orientation of sweeteners?
Batonnet, Tournée, Julienne and Chiffonade are what?
Knife cuts used in culinary preparation
Describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma.
Hue: color; Value: reflectiveness or brightness of color; Chroma: intensity of the color with respect to the amount of white light mixed in
Name eight knife cuts.
Batonnet; Julianne; Massive wand; Tournée; Rondelle; Brunoise; (Chiffonade); (Flute)
Name four types of temperature probes used in food service.
Immersion Probes, Surface Probes, Penetration Probes, Air Probes
Rank the following types of peppers by the amount of heat produced from least to greatest: jalepeno, bell, habenero, tabasco.
Bell, jalepeno, tabasco, habenero
The most common thickening agent in most sauces is “roux”? What are the three types of roux?
White, Blond, Brown
What are 3 coordinates in the CIE system or color solid?
x, y ,z
What are the “Mother Sauces” or “Leading Sauces”?
a. Espangnol/demi-glace/brown; b. Marinara/Tomato; c. Warm Butter/Hollandaise/Béarnaise; d. Velouté/Béchamel/White; e. Emulsion Sauces: mayonnaise
What are the 5 taste sensations?
Sweet, bitter, sour, salty, umami
What are the four ingredients in yeast bread?
Wheat, water, salt, yeast
What color wine can be made from a Chardonnay grape?
White, red, or rose
What is a Louisiana Style King Cake and what time of the year is it usually made in the US?
Cinnamon-roll like cake inside with sugary icing with traditional Mardi Gras colored sprinkles (yellow, green, and purple) on the outside; a small trinket is placed in the middle of the cake and is usually a small plastic baby; Mardi Gras
What is the difference between a duo-trio test and a triangle test?
Triangle all three unknown, find the two alike; duo-trio – two samples compared to a reference
What is the difference between an herb and a spice?
Spice: Is the fruit of the plant. Spices are the berries, fruits, flowers, bark, seeds, and roots of plants or trees.; Herb: Is the leafy part of the plant: leaves, stems, buds, or flowers.
What is the difference between poaching, simmering, and boiling of water?
The temperature - Poaching: 160°F-180°F; Simmering: 185°F-200°F; Boiling: 212°F; *note: Foods simmer and poach at different temperatures.
What is the process of making a consommé?
Addition of brown meat, vegetables, and egg whites added to a stock. Placing the stockpot half way on the burner to create a convection of the liquid. The raft clarifies the stock.
What molecules are responsible for coconut and peach odor?
Nonalactone – coconut; undecalactone – peach
What is the cooking utensil used for slicing and cutting juliennes?
What is a preparation of an egg white that is used as an adhesive for bookbinding and gilding called?
What affective test used to gather information on consumer acceptability is typically used with children?
Facial Hedonic Scale
When conducting a paired comparison test, when should you use a two-tailed test?
When you are not sure there is a difference