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Flashcards in Sensory Deck (96):
1

According to IFT guidelines, a minimum of how many panelists are required for a panel trained in descriptive profile analysis?

4

2

As suggested by Shallenberger and co-workers in 1967, what does the AH-B hypothesis relate to?

Sweetness

3

France, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, and Bulgaria have something called “King Cake”; what does the “King Cake” represent?

King Cake is associated with the festival of Epiphany in the Christmas season

4

Give the resultant color for the following L*a*b* score: L*=40, a*=-10, b*=-40

Yellow

5

Give the resultant color for the following L*a*b* score: L*=50, a*=0, b*=-0

Gray

6

Give the resultant color for the following L*a*b* score: L*=50, a*=50, b*=-50

Purple

7

In knife skills what is the proper name for the waffle cut that is commonly used for potatoes?

Gaufrette

8

In sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing?

Hedonic scale (usually 9 pts)

9

In this discrimination test of sensory evaluation panelists must choose whether or not two coded samples are different

Paired comparison

10

J.E. Amoore suggested that odor is a function of a molecules what?

Shape

11

Name a sensory method that compensates for response bias.

Signal detection

12

Name the compound that may taste like a maraschino cherry to some and like almond to others?

Benzaldehyde

13

Name three methods for cooling foods.

Ice-water bath, Ice paddle, Blast chiller, Tumble Chiller

14

Once properly heated, hot foods must be held at temperatures of __________or higher?

135 °F (57 °C)

15

Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called affective tests. Give an example.

Ranking, Hedonic, Scaling

16

The Flavor Profile has become a standard approach to the sensory measurement of aromas and flavors. What company developed this method in 1948

Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA

17

The process of cooking sugars is properly known as what?

Caramelization

18

The results of what sensory test are often plotted to give a flavor profile

Quantitative Descriptive Analysis

19

What are the basic levels a chef is called?

Certified ; Executive; Master

20

What are the components of a Munsell system?

Hue, chroma, intensity

21

What are the major hotness causing compounds in black and red pepper?

Black – piperine; Red – capsacin

22

What are the major sensory quality characteristics of foods?

Flavor factors, appearance factors, and kinesthetic factors

23

What are the three primary categories determining food quality?

Appearance, texture, and flavor

24

What are the three primary colors?

Red, green, blue

25

What are the three types of sensory tests?

Discrimination, descriptive, and affective (preference)

26

What color is observed when red, green, and blue pigments are mixed in equal amounts?

Black

27

What compound can be smelled on a person’s breath during ketosis?

Acetone

28

What compound found in toothpaste surpresses the sweetness in orange juice make it taste bitter?

Sodium lauryl sulfate

29

What does “Nappe” mean?

Thickness of sauce on the back of a spoon

30

What does ACF stand for and what does it certify?

American Culinary Foundation; Chefs

31

What does the acronym FIFO stand for in food receiving and storage?

First-in, first-out

32

What is a “bouquet garni”?

This is a collection of aromatics that is typically tied together in either a: sachet, or leak greens, or celery stock.

33

What is a “Mother Sauce” or “Leading Sauces”?

These are the basic sauces in which many other sauces are derived.

34

What is a “quick bread”?

A quick is named because of the small amount preparation and unlike yeast bread does not involve any proofing or rising. Of course does not have any yeast.

35

What is a consommé?

(Escoffier and Charme); Intensely flavored amber color clear liquid with a distinct flavored body-a clarified stock-a clear soup made from clarified stock by using meats and egg white, vegetables-the “RAFT”.

36

What is a hedonic sensory panel evaluation?

A panel where the judges are asked if they like or dislike a food or foods and often how much it is liked or disliked

37

What is a mirepoix and what does it consist of?

50% onions; 25% carrots; 25% celery

38

What is Ageusia?

Lack or impairment of sensitivity to taste

39

What is Agnosia?

Loss of ability to recognize smells while the sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss

40

What is Amarogen?

Bitter producing compounds

41

What is Auguste Escoffier known for creating?

Brigade system; Mother sauces; Le Guide Cullinaire

42

What is deglutition?

The act or process of swallowing food

43

What is responsible for “warmed over flavor”

Fat oxidation

44

What is responsible for the trigeminal senses?

Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and nasal cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaicin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as a protection evice against harmful chemicals

45

What is taste sensation may be described as "savory"?

Umami

46

What is the bitter substance in orange and lemon peel

Hesperidin

47

What is the most common thickening agent in most sauces?

Roux

48

What is the muffin method & what is it used for?

measurement of dry and wet ingredients separately, then quickly mixing the two; quick bread, muffins

49

What is the name for the tall chefs hat with folds?

Toque

50

What is the name of beer that is typically brewed in March and stored until fall?

Oktoberfest/Marizen

51

What is the name of the classification systems for chefs?

Michelin star system

52

What is the name of the scale used to describe the hotness of peppers?

Scoville

53

What is the principal bitter component in navel and Valencia oranges that causes the delayed bitterness defect in orange juice?

Limonine

54

What is the proper term for cooking of starches?

Gelatinization

55

What is the purpose of searing meat?

For maillard browning and caramelization to improve the meat flavor, texture, and appearance; Does not seal in the juices.

56

What is the reaction time for a taste response?

25 msec

57

What is the standard against which all sweeteners are measured in terms of quality of taste and taste profile?

Sucrose

58

What is the term used to describe the least energy capable of producing a sensation?

Absolute threshold

59

What is the typical flavor of pyrazine?

Roasted or nutty

60

What maturity index is utilized to indicate the desired flavor of oranges?

Sugar/acid ration

61

What substance formed during the roasting of malt, coffee, cocoa, and grains has the ability to enhance sweetness and act as an antioxidant?

Maltol

62

What taste are the taste buds on the back of the tongue most sensitive to?

Bitter

63

What type of cooking relies on radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food, where it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat?

Microwave cooking

64

What type of cooking uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cooks the food?

Infrared cooking

65

What type of dry-heat cooking methods uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods?

Broiling

66

What type of pressure should a sensory evaluation room have?

Positive

67

When a thermometer is calibrated using the ice-point method, it should be adjusted to what temperature after the stem or probe has been placed in the ice water?

32 °F (0°C)

68

When foods are reheated, the internal temperature should quickly reach or exceed what temperature in order to kill any bacteria that may have grown during storage?

165 °F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours

69

Which descriptive sensory analysis technique uses consumers instead of trained judges?

Free choice profiling

70

Which is sweetest: glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose?

Fructose

71

Which of the following describes the type of place cockroaches are typically found? A) Cold, dry, and light B) Warm, dry, and light C) Cold, moist, and dark D) Warm, moist, and dark

D) Warm, moist, and dark

72

Which papillae on the tongue do not have taste buds but are for touch sensation?

Filiform

73

Which sensory test would you use to determine whether Coke is sweeter than Pepsi?

Paired comparison for sweetness

74

Who is credit with the invention of Haute/Grande cuisine?

Antoine Carême

75

Who was the first person to discover the orientation of sweeteners?

Kier

76

Batonnet, Tournée, Julienne and Chiffonade are what?

Knife cuts used in culinary preparation

77

Describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma.

Hue: color; Value: reflectiveness or brightness of color; Chroma: intensity of the color with respect to the amount of white light mixed in

78

Name eight knife cuts.

Batonnet; Julianne; Massive wand; Tournée; Rondelle; Brunoise; (Chiffonade); (Flute)

79

Name four types of temperature probes used in food service.

Immersion Probes, Surface Probes, Penetration Probes, Air Probes

80

Rank the following types of peppers by the amount of heat produced from least to greatest: jalepeno, bell, habenero, tabasco.

Bell, jalepeno, tabasco, habenero

81

The most common thickening agent in most sauces is "roux"? What are the three types of roux?

White, Blond, Brown

82

What are 3 coordinates in the CIE system or color solid?

x, y ,z

83

What are the “Mother Sauces” or “Leading Sauces”?

a. Espangnol/demi-glace/brown; b. Marinara/Tomato; c. Warm Butter/Hollandaise/Béarnaise; d. Velouté/Béchamel/White; e. Emulsion Sauces: mayonnaise

84

What are the 5 taste sensations?

Sweet, bitter, sour, salty, umami

85

What are the four ingredients in yeast bread?

Wheat, water, salt, yeast

86

What color wine can be made from a Chardonnay grape?

White, red, or rose

87

What is a Louisiana Style King Cake and what time of the year is it usually made in the US?

Cinnamon-roll like cake inside with sugary icing with traditional Mardi Gras colored sprinkles (yellow, green, and purple) on the outside; a small trinket is placed in the middle of the cake and is usually a small plastic baby; Mardi Gras

88

What is the difference between a duo-trio test and a triangle test?

Triangle all three unknown, find the two alike; duo-trio – two samples compared to a reference

89

What is the difference between an herb and a spice?

Spice: Is the fruit of the plant. Spices are the berries, fruits, flowers, bark, seeds, and roots of plants or trees.; Herb: Is the leafy part of the plant: leaves, stems, buds, or flowers.

90

What is the difference between poaching, simmering, and boiling of water?

The temperature - Poaching: 160°F-180°F; Simmering: 185°F-200°F; Boiling: 212°F; *note: Foods simmer and poach at different temperatures.

91

What is the process of making a consommé?

Addition of brown meat, vegetables, and egg whites added to a stock. Placing the stockpot half way on the burner to create a convection of the liquid. The raft clarifies the stock.

92

What molecules are responsible for coconut and peach odor?

Nonalactone – coconut; undecalactone – peach

93

What is the cooking utensil used for slicing and cutting juliennes?

Mandoline

94

What is a preparation of an egg white that is used as an adhesive for bookbinding and gilding called?

Glair

95

What affective test used to gather information on consumer acceptability is typically used with children?

Facial Hedonic Scale

96

When conducting a paired comparison test, when should you use a two-tailed test?

When you are not sure there is a difference