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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (141)
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1
Q

What led to the origin of omega fish oils?

A

Eskimos getting sick

2
Q

What is the polar bear liver disease?

A

Inability to process Vitamin A

3
Q

What is hyperkalaemia?

A

Higher than normal levels of potassium in the blood

4
Q

Why is raw soybean meal a lesser source of essential proteins than cooked or heat processed soybean meal?

A

Soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors that, unless denatured by heat, reduce that digestibility of the soy protein.

5
Q

While vitamin A is sometimes measured in International Units, what unit is used by the RDA?

A

Retinol equivalent

6
Q

Which vitamins can also be used as antioxidants?

A

C and E

7
Q

Which vitamin is prevented from being absorbed by raw egg whites?

A

Biotin

8
Q

Which section of the gastrointestinal tract is the major area of absorption of nutrients?

A

The small intestine

9
Q

Which of the following four amino acids is not essential in the human diet? Phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine, methionine

A

Tyrosine (b)

10
Q

Which of the following foods should a sulfite-sensitive individual avoid? Wine, frozen hash brown potatoes, fruit cocktail with maraschino cherries, sauerkraut?

A

Avoid all

11
Q

Which lipoprotein transports triacylglycerides and cholesterol from the intestine to other parts of the body?

A

Chylomicrons

12
Q

Which lipoprotein transports lipids from the liver to other parts of the body?

A

VLDL (very low density lipoproteins)

13
Q

Which has the least number of calories: raw potatoes or potatoes boiled in their skin?

A

Raw potatoes

14
Q

Where is 25 hydroxychole-calciferol hydroxylated to produce the active form of vitamin D (1, 2, 5 dihydroxy-cholecalciferol)

A

Kidney

15
Q

Where are starch granules produced?

A

In plastids (specifically amyloplasts)

16
Q

What’s the active form of niacin in the body?

A

Nicotinamide

17
Q

What vitamins areimportant in plasma membrane integrity?

A

Vitamins A and E

18
Q

What vitamins and minerals must be added to enriched flour?

A

Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Iron, Folate

19
Q

What vitamin was once known as vitamin H?

A

Biotin

20
Q

What vitamin is produced from cholesterol in the body?

A

Vitamin D

21
Q

What vitamin is a necessary cofactor for transamination reactions?

A

Pyridoxine (B6)

22
Q

What vitamin enhances the absorption of iron in the body?

A

Vitamin C

23
Q

What type of wheat is used to make pasta?

A

Durum

24
Q

What type of cholesterol is known as good cholesterol?

A

HDL

25
Q

What term is generally defines as lignin plus plant polysaccharides that cannot be digested by human enzymes?

A

Dietary fiber

26
Q

What substance did Canadians Charles Best and Fredrick Banting discover in 1922?

A

Insulin

27
Q

What part of the GI absorbs nutrients?

A

Small Intestine

28
Q

What part of the body is the primary storage area for glycogen?

A

The liver

29
Q

What organ stores bile for release?

A

Gall bladder

30
Q

What Nobel Prize-winning chemist claimed that megadoses of ascorbic acid could prevent or cure the common cold, flu, and cancer?

A

Linus Pauling

31
Q

What mineral has been shown to have a protective effect against osteoporosis?

A

Calcium

32
Q

What mineral deficiency causes goiter?

A

Iodine

33
Q

What is the vitamin most associated with antioxidant activity in PUFAs?

A

Vitamin E

34
Q

What is the term for starvation due to lack of food?

A

Maramus

35
Q

What is the retinol equivalent and the amount(s) of compound equivalent to 1 R.E.?

A

Expression of Vitamin A activity; 1 R.E. = 1?g retinol = 6?g ?-carotene = 12?g other Vitamin A active compounds

36
Q

What is the proteolytic enzyme in gastric juice?

A

Pepsin

37
Q

What is the primary food fiber responsible for dietary roughage?

A

Cellulose

38
Q

What is the only truly essential fatty acid?

A

Linoleic acid

39
Q

What is the normal amylose content in cereal grains?

A

20 - 30%

40
Q

What is the non-nutrient in fruits and vegetables?

A

Fiber

41
Q

What is the name of a Vitamin B2 deficiency?

A

Ariboflavinosis

42
Q

What is the major mineral in the human body?

A

Calcium

43
Q

What is the major cause of death in the US?

A

Coronary heart disease

44
Q

What is the hormone released by cows that allows milk to be released?

A

Oxytocin

45
Q

What is the function of glucagon?

A

Release glucose from storage to raise blood sugar levels

46
Q

What is the essential amino acid lacking in wheat?

A

Lysine

47
Q

What is the difference in Kcal between high fructose corn syrup and sucrose?

A

None; they are the same

48
Q

What is the difference between fortification and enrichment?

A

Fortification - adding back what was lost, enrichment - adding more than was originally present

49
Q

What is the common term for phylloquinone and what is its function in the human body?

A

Vitamin K - important in blood clotting

50
Q

What is the cause of scurvy?

A

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency

51
Q

What is diastatic activity?

A

The combined acitivity of alpha and beta amylase in converting starch to fermentable sugar.

52
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B7?

A

Vitamin H or Biotin

53
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B6?

A

Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine

54
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B5?

A

Pantothenic acid

55
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B3?

A

Niacin

56
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B2?

A

Riboflavin

57
Q

What is another name for Vitamin B1?

A

Thiamine

58
Q

What is added to self-rising flour?

A

Sodium bicarbonate and one or more of the acid reacting substances: monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid phosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate.

59
Q

What is a probiotic food?

A

A food that enhances health by means other than the presence of conventional nutrients.

60
Q

What is a P.E.R.?

A

Protein Efficiency Ratio (wt gain/gm N consumed)

61
Q

What is a calorie and how many are there in fat, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol?

A

Energy to raise 1g of water 1 degree C/ - 9, 4, 4, 7

62
Q

What is 1,2,5 dihydroxycholecalciferol?

A

The hormonally active form of vitamin D

63
Q

What fraction of man’s dietary Vitamin C intake is obtained from fruits and vegetables?

A

90%

64
Q

What does a Farinograph measure?

A

Gluten strength

65
Q

What causes pernicious anemia?

A

Lack of vitamin B-12 absorption (leading to a red blood cell deficiency or anemia)

66
Q

What body organ secretes the major fat digesting enzymes?

A

The pancreas

67
Q

What are three positive effects of thermal processing on the nutritive value of foods?

A

Destruction of degrative enzymes, destruction of anti nutrients, increased bioavailability of nutrients

68
Q

What are the two groups of storage proteins in cereals?

A

Prolamins, glutelins

69
Q

What are the deficiency and toxicity symptoms of Vitamin D?

A

Deficiency: Rickets, abdominal protrusion; Toxicity: soft tissue calcification, renal damage

70
Q

What are the coenzyme forms of niacin?

A

NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide); NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

71
Q

What are 3 functions of phosphorous in the human body?

A

Bone deposition, membrane components (phospholipids), ATP (energy!)

72
Q

What are 2 sources of cholesterol in the body?

A

Diet and endogenous synthesis

73
Q

What are 2 examples of natural antioxidants?

A

Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene

74
Q

What amino acid is found in the highest concentration in serum?

A

Glutamine

75
Q

What 2 grains make up Crispix cereal?

A

Rice and corn

76
Q

Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency causes what disease?

A

Pellagra

77
Q

Vitamin B1 or Thiamine deficiency causes what disease?

A

Beriberi

78
Q

Tryptophan when present in an amino acid, can replace the vitamin requirements for which vitamin?

A

Niacin

79
Q

The storage form of glucose in the body is: a. insulin; b. galactose; c. maltose; d. glycogen

A

d. glycogen

80
Q

The RDA for vitamin B12 for infants is based on the average concentration of that vitamin in what food?

A

Human milk (breast milk)

81
Q

The levels of intake of essential nutrient considered adequate for meeting the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons is called?

A

RDA

82
Q

The body can make niacin from: a. tyrosine; b. riboflavin; c. serotonin; d. tryptophan

A

d. Tryptophan

83
Q

The adult human required 8 essential amino acids in the diet. What additional amino acid does the human infant require?

A

Histidine

84
Q

Prostaglandins are chemical regulators of a number of body functions. What are they derived from?

A

Fatty acids

85
Q

Pernicious anemia, memory loss and other cognitive declines may be caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?

A

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

86
Q

Pernicious anemia is the Vitamin deficiency disease and results from a lack of what?

A

B12, intrinsic factor

87
Q

People with what metabolic disorder are well advised to avoid products containing Nutrasweet?

A

Phenylketonuria or PKU

88
Q

Pellagra is caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?

A

Niacin

89
Q

On a worldwide basis deficiency of what vitamin is believed to be the most common form of vitamin under­nutrition?

A

Folic Acid

90
Q

Niacin deficiency causes pellegra, a condition known as the disease of the 4 Ds. What do the 4 D’s represent?

A

Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

91
Q

Name two types of insoluble fiber, and a dietary source for each:

A

Cellulose— grains; Lignin—vegetable

92
Q

Name the vitamin which will prevent night blindness

A

Vitamin A

93
Q

Name the sulfur containing essential amino acid

A

Methionine

94
Q

Name the 4 fat soluble vitamins and their deficiencies if applicable.

A

Vit A - night blindness Vit D - rickets Vit E - fat malabsorption Vit K - clotting problems

95
Q

Name several methods of assessing protein quality

A

P.E.R., Net Protein Utilization, Net Protein Ratio, Relative Protein Value, PDCAAS

96
Q

Name a commonly occurring antioxidant in poultry.

A

Tocopherol (Vitamin E)

97
Q

Name 8 essential amino acids

A

Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Thr, Phe, Tyr, Lys

98
Q

Milk is considered to be an ideal food for human health being rich in vitamins and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus however milk lacks one very important mineral. Which one?

A

Iron

99
Q

Marasmus is a type of PEM disease? What does PEM stand for?

A

Protein Energy Malnutrition

100
Q

List two possible physical consequences of Pellagra?

A

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death, or swollen tongue

101
Q

Levels of what amino acid are believed to be related to heart disease?

A

Homocysteine

102
Q

Korsakoff’s syndrome, an irreversible psychosis characterized by amnesia and confabulation or false memories is caused by deficiency of what B vitamin?

A

Thiamine or Vitamin B1

103
Q

Ketosis, the buildup of ketones in the blood, can be caused by the insufficiency of what?

A

Carbohydrates

104
Q

In a cytoplasmic body are the respiratory enzymes of the TCA cycle located?

A

Mitochondria

105
Q

If you are allergic to wheat, wheat products, rye and in some cases, oats and barley, you may be allergic to the major protein gliadin, a major component of wheat. This condition may be associated with the destruction of the lining of the small intestine. What is the name of the condition?

A

Celiac sprue or celiac disease

106
Q

Hyperkeratinization, xerosis, Bitot’s spots, keratomalacia and hyperkeratosis are symptoms of what vitamin deficiency?

A

Vitamin A

107
Q

How many different amino acids exist, and how many are designated as essential?

A

20 and 8

108
Q

How many calories does aspartame have per gram?

A

4

109
Q

How many calories are in one gram of ethanol?

A

7

110
Q

How is glucose stored in the body?

A

Glycogen

111
Q

Give the names of the fat soluble vitamins produced by bacteria in the large intestine.

A

Vitamin K, phylloquinone, napthoquinone

112
Q

Give the names of the essential fatty acids

A

Linoleic, linolenic

113
Q

Give five natural sources of Vitamin B

A

potatoes, bananas, lentils, chili peppers, tempeh, liver, turkey, and tuna, brewer’s yeast, beer

114
Q

For the following “healthy claim” terms, “Extra Lean” and “Low fat”, which refers to the lower amount of fat grams contained in a product?

A

Low Fat (3 grams), {extra lean = 4.5 grams}

115
Q

For an individual to lose two pounds of body weight, about how many calories will have to be expended?

A

7000 calories (3500 per pounds)

116
Q

Folic Acid has also been called what?

A

Vitamin B9, Vitamin M, Vitamin B-c

117
Q

Degradation of this vitamin is responsible for oxidized defect in milk. What vitamin is this?

A

Riboflavin

118
Q

Deficiency of what vitamin is associated with neural tube defects?

A

Folate

119
Q

Deficiency of what B vitamin results in microcrytic anemia?

A

B6 (pyroxidine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)

120
Q

Deficiencies of which two water soluble vitamins results in microcytic anemia?

A

Folate and Vitamin C

121
Q

Ariboflavinosis characterized by symptoms such as cracks in the lips, high sensitivity to sunlight, and inflammation of the tongue is caused by deficience of what vitamin?

A

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

122
Q

Anemia, depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated levels of homocysteine may be due to a deficiency of what vitamin?

A

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

123
Q

A substance which is needed by the body but is not produced by the body is called what?

A

An essential nutrient

124
Q

A psychosis characterized by amnesia or false memories and is caused by deficiency of Vitamin B1 or thiamine is called what?

A

Korsakoff’s syndrome

125
Q

A low glucose level in the blood is known as what?

A

Hypoglycemia

126
Q

A high intake of can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency?

A

Folate

127
Q

A deficiency of this vitamin in pregnant women can lead to birth defects.

A

Folic acid

128
Q

A deficiency of thiamin interferes with the metabolism of what compound?

A

Pyruvate

129
Q

A deficiency in vitamin D results in the childhood disease called what?

A

Rickets

130
Q

A characteristic of an emetic form is that it causes nausea but not what?

A

Diarrhea

131
Q

1000 to 10,000 angstrom droplets of triacyglyceride stabilized by a membrane and transported by the blood to various organs of the body are called what?

A

Chylomicrons

132
Q

What are the six categories of macronutrients?

A

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Mineral, Water

133
Q

Name the fat soluble vitamins?

A

A, D, E, K

134
Q

A fictitious food contains 1 gram each of lard, tallow, starch, dextrose, glycine, and ethanol. How many calories are in this food?

A

9+9+4+4+4+7=37

135
Q

What enzyme in saliva breaks down fats?

A

Lingual lipase

136
Q

What is the name of the current nutrition guide published by the USDA?

A

MyPlate

137
Q

In the MyPlate nutrition guide how many groups are there?

A

5

138
Q

What are the groups for MyPlate?

A

Fruits, Grains, Vegetables, Protein, Dairy

139
Q

What are the colors of the groups for MyPlate?

A
Fruits – red
Grains – orange
Vegetables – green
Proteins – purple
Dairy – blue
140
Q

What vitamins does alcohol deplete in the human body?

A

B-complex vitamins

141
Q

Foods that contain biologically-active components that are related to health promotion or disease prevention are called what?

A

Functional foods