Flashcards in Meat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs Deck (174):
Young female breeder chicken that produces fertile hatching eggs that become broilers is what?
Which fish is the most consumed worldwide?
What is the term for the proportion of saleable retail cuts that are obtained from a carcass?
Yield grade (or cutability)
What is a chicken that is 30 days old and weighs about 2 pounds live weight?
What is a broiler?
A chicken raised for meat production
What does WOG stand for?
A whole dressed broiler without giblets
What does farrow mean?
To give birth to piglets
What are the cuts intermediate between primal cuts and portion cuts?
This dish, made from pork intestines, may be boiled or fried and is considered a delicacy by many Southerners?
The Warner-Bratzler Shear Machine is used to measure what characteristic of meat?
The upper part of a pork shoulder is known as?
The porterhouse steak, t-bone steak, tenderloin steak, and tri-tip roast are from what sections of a beef carcass?
Short loin & sirloin
The picnic applies to what part of the hog carcass?
Lower or shank part of the shoulder
The formation of metmyoglobin can occur when myoglobin undergoes oxidation which converts the iron atom to what state?
The flat iron steak, shoulder pot roast, shoulder steak, ranch steak and boneless short ribs all come from what area of the beef carcass?
Primal cuts are what sections of the carcass?
Chuck, rib, loin or round
Pescitarians are individuals who eat no meat except what?
Meats that are pre-cut, pre-packaged and do no require further handling by retailers are called?
Liver, heart, tongue, tripe, sweetbreads and brains are known as what?
Jonathan Swift said "It was a brave man who first ate.." this:
How can the size of egg be determined?
By looking at the age of the hen
How can the color of egg be determined?
By looking at the chicken's ear lobe
For what product did Clarence Birdseye develop a rapid freezing system?
A wing portion consisting only of the first or proximal section is called what?
A whole broiler with head, feet and entrails intact is called what?
New York Dressed
A surgically desexed male broiler chicken weight 7 to 9 pounds is called a what?
A market weight steer is typically 1250 pounds and has a yield of 62.2%. How much beef is obtained from the steer?
A male pig that is castrated prior to reaching sexual maturity is known as what?
A female pig that has not had her first litter of piglets is what?
Why is oil sometimes applied on eggs?
Fills pores to prevent loss of CO2 from egg, prevent water loss, prevent gas exchange, and preserve eggs longer.
Why is hot water used to wash eggs (rather than cold water)?
Hot water causes contents of eggs to swell, go outward; prevents water from coming into egg. If the contents of egg are cooler, then it will pull things into the egg.
Why does the pH of albumen in freshly laid eggs change from 7.6 to 9.7 during storage?
Diffusion of solubilized CO2 through the shell
Why does fish become flakey upon cooking?
Collagen between myotomes breaks down to gelatin
Why are egg whites desugared prior to drying?
Minimize Maillard browning
Which of these retail cuts would not come from a beef chuck? arm steak; arm poast roast; sirloin steak; blade steak
Which of the following muscle tissues has the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids in the lipid fraction? Beef, pork, poultry, lean fish, lean meat
Beef (55% of fatty acids saturated)
Which of the following muscle tissues has the highest percentage of polyenic fatty acid in the lipid fraction? Beef, pork, mutton, poultry, lean fish, lean meat
Which of the following lean meats has the lowest percentage of saturated fatty acids in the lipid fraction? Beef, pork, mutton, poultry, lean fish, lean meat
Tie between poultry, lean fish, and fatty fish (30% of fatty acids saturated)
Where does a skirt steak come from? What muscle is it?
Beef short plate; Diaphragm
Where are the lipovitellins and livetins found?
Plasma proteins of egg yolk
What would you expect to exhibit the shortest frozen shelflife – frozen skinless turkey breast or frozen haddock fillets? Why?
The frozen fish because it would have a far higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids and all else being equal would therefore undergo rancidity much sooner than the turkey.
What term is used to describe removal of meat from a carcass while it is still warm as opposed to chilling it first?
What term describes examining the contents of a shell egg using light?
What protein is the main component of the "thick filaments" in muscle cells?
What protein comprised about 58% of all egg white protein?
What process produces type A gelatins?
What percentage of egg weight is yolk?
30-33% (governs size of egg that will be laid)
What percentage of egg weight is albumen?
What percentage of an egg’s weight is the shell?
What N-acetylmuramidase enzyme found in egg whites hydrolyzes the cell walls of gram positive bacteria?
What muscle enzyme catalyzes formation of glucose -1-P from glycogen?
What method of cooking eggs involves removing the egg from the shell and placing it into boiling water until the white is jelly-like and uniformly coagulated while the yolk is semi-liquid and covered by a thick coating of white?
What makes up 94% of the egg shell’s weight?
CaCO3 (also 1% MgCO3, 1% CaPO4, 4% organic matter)
What is ultimate pH?
The final pH attained in muscle tissue post-mortem; or pH 5.3-5.7
What is the water content of lean beef muscle?
What is the vitelline membrane of an egg?
Membrane that surrounds the yolk
What is the term used to describe pork meat that has undergone a sudden decrease in pH after slaughter?
PSE (pale, soft, exudative)
What is the stiff and rigid state of muscle that develops after an animal is slaughtered?
What is the source of proteolytic enzyme bromelin?
What is the significance of trimethylamine to the seafood industry?
Trimethylamine is the fishy odor given off when the phosopholipids split. This odor is a sign that the fish is not as fresh and is losing its quality.
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
Membranous system of tubules and cisternae that forms a closely meshed network around myofibril
What is the relative size of the myoglobin molecule compared to hemoglobin?
Myoglobin is about 1/4 the size of the hemoglobin molecule
What is the purpose of using non-fat dry milk to comminuted meats?
Binds fat and water, thereby stabilizing the emulsion
What is the proximal end of the small intestine called?
What is the protein obtained by partial hydrolysis of the collagen in cattle skins and bones and pork skins?
What is the name of the membrane that directly surrounds the egg yolk?
What is the most abundant carbohydrate in the animal body?
Glycogen (mostly in liver)
What is the measurement that signifies the quality of a shell egg?
What is the major seafood commodity in the US?
What is the main salt soluble protein of meat?
Myosin (actomyosin - post-rigor)
What is the main salt insoluble compound in meat?
Collagen (connective tissues or stroma)
What is the main protein making up the “I bands” of cross striated muscle?
What is the main lipid class in lean or low fat fish?
What is the isoelectric point of myofibrillar proteins?
What is the irreversible interaction of actin and myosin that is cause by the depletion of ATP in post mortem muscle?
What is the feed conversion ratio for chickens?
2 lb feed; 1 lb gain
What is the common cooking term for an egg white foam into which sugar has been incorporated?
What is the color of oxymyoglobin?
Bright Red or cherry red
What is the color of myoglobin?
Purple or purplish-red
What is the color of metmyoglobin?
Brownish red; Metmyoglobin results from oxidation of the iron atom to the ferric (3+) state and complexing of a molecule of water.
What is the cause of the color change from blue-green to bright red as lobster, crab and shrimp are cooked?
Denaturation of carotenoprotein
What is the approximate freezing point of most meat, poultry, fish flesh?
27 F (-2 C)
What is done to fish before it is frozen to protect it from surface oxidation and freezer burn?
It is glazed
What instrument is used to test egg shell strength?
What ingredient in marshmallows prevents sucrose crystallization and forms a network around the air bubbles?
What happens when low levels of NO2 are introduced into meat?
Formation of nitrosylhemochrome to form a red color (typical of cured meat)
What happens to the physical property of egg when stored below -6 degrees Celsius?
The yolk viscosity rises irreversibly giving it a gel-like consistency
What general technique of meat curing is said to have been developed by a New Zealand mortician?
Artery pumping of brine into meats
What family of glycoproteins are the main constituents of muscle connective tissue?
What do the initials PFF refer to in processed pork products?
Protein Fat Free
What defect in swine is adrostenone responsible for?
What compound is responsible for the pink color of cured meats?
What compound is a polymer of glucose that the human body usually contains less than a pound mostly found in the liver and muscle?
What company produced the first canned ham in 1926.
What chemical process is responsible for the warmed-over flavor of poultry?
What causes green discoloration in tuna?
Oxidation of myoglobin
What basic glycoprotein found in egg white has the property of binding biotin?
What are the two types of adipose tissue?
White fat, brown fat
What are the two plasma proteins of egg yolk?
Lipovitellenins and livetins
What are the proteolytic enzymes contained in lysosomes?
What are the primary proteins in the thin filament of muscle and the thick filament of muscle?
What are the origin and chemical composition of the greenish-gray discoloration that can form on the surface of hard boiled eggs?
Ferrous sulfide - the yolk contributes the iron and albumen contributes sulfur
What are the 2 proteins believed to be involved in egg white thinning?
Lysozyme and ovomucin
What are key factors in determining the onset of rigor mortis?
Lack of ATP for relaxation; creatine phosphate and glycogen are involved in conversion of ADP to ATP
What are 3 general factors are important in judging meats?
fat thickness, loin eye area, marbling
What anatomical region of the myofibril is broken down during aging and susequent tenderization of beef?
To make a fermented sausage with more "tang," one should add more of what ingredient to the meat mixture?
Glucose, dextrose, or sucrose
The tiny deposits of fat within meat generally characteristic of higher grades of meat is known by what name?
The safety of seafood is influenced by the presence of the biologically active amine, histamine. How is it formed?
It is formed in spoiling fish by decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine.
The oxidation of iron in myoglobin from the ferrous to the ferric (+3) state results in the brown pigment called what?
The muscle that makes up most of our meats is best classified as: a) involuntary, smooth b) voluntary, cross-striated, c) double obliquely striated
b) voluntary, cross-striated
The earliest known recorded reference to sausage dates back to the eighth century B.C. In what epic written work was it referenced?
Homer's, The Odyssey
The conversion of whole animal fatty tissue in purified fats like lard and tallow is called what?
The contractile unit of the myofibril of muscle is called?
The color of fresh meat is determined by the ratios of what three components?
Myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin
The accumulation of adipose tissue around the bundles of muscle fibers in beef is called what?
Squab is the meat of what animal?
Rigor associated with meat held at low (non-freezing) temperatures is called:
PSS causes certain animals to be very susceptible to stress during their lives and upon slaughter the animals produce pale, soft, and exudative carcasses. What does PSS stand for?
Porcine Stress Syndrome
PSE pork is an important problem that occurs in certain breeds of hog. PSE stands for what?
Pale, soft, exudative
Of the red, intermediate and white muscle types, which has the slowest contraction speed?
Of the following meat tenderizing proteolytic enzymes, papain, ficin, trypsin, bromelin, which comes from papayas?
Natural casings used in sausage production are made of what?
Name three types of marine pelagic fish.
Salmon, pollock, tuna, herring
Name three types of fresh water pelagic fish.
Trout, salmon, whitefish, smelt
Muscles are surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue called: a) endomysium b) epimysium c) perimysium.
Muscle cells are multinucleated, cylindrical cells; what is the outer membrane that surrounds a muscle cell called?
In the presence of air, myoglobin readily adds two atoms of oxygen to form a new compound; What is the name of the compound?
If your enjoying a delicacy in England called “trotters”, what are you eating?
If the oxygen supply available to myoglobin is rather limited or meat is exposed to incandescent light too long, a brownish-red pigment forms; What is this pigment called?
Hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine in collagen is an important step leading to what?
Collagen crosslinkage; Conversion of a-chains, b and g chains (crosslinks)
How many pores are in one egg?
7000-17000 (more pores in the large end than in the small end)
From what type of fish is surimi usually made?
For determining the quality grade of a beef carcass, between what two ribs is the cut made? (give the numbers)
Between the 12th & 13th rib
Define “rigor mortis”
Rigor mortis is the rigidity of muscles that develops after death of an animal
Dark cutting beef is characterized by dark color, firm and dry texture. The problem is associated with meat having: a)low ultimate pH, b)high ultimate pH, c) rapid pH decline
b) high ultimate pH
Ca++ regulates actin myosin interaction during muscle contraction by binding to which filament protein: myosin, actin, or troponin?
Troponin or troponin c
Based upon standard identity, what is the maximum percentage fat allowed in hot dogs?
30% (Title 9 CFR Sec. 319.180.b)
Approximately what percentage of a chicken is marketable meat?
A unique group of phospholipids that occur in small amounts in muscle tissue and milk have the 1 position of the glycerol linked to a 16 or 18 carbon aldehyde; what are these called?
“Sweetbreads” fall into the category of variety meats. What are they specifically?
What is the purpose of adding extenders, binders, and fillers to meat? Give 3 examples.
Purposes: to improve meat batter stability; improve water binding capacity; enhance texture and/or flavor ; reduce shrinkage during cooking; improve slicing; reduce cost; Examples: dried milk, soy protein, textured vegetable protein, whey, cereal flours
What is the “K-value” in assessing meat and fish?
objective measure of the "loss of freshness"; Inosine+Hypoxanthin/ATP metabolite concentration
What factors affect fat composition of poultry?
Age, sex, species, part of bird
What are three of the five stages of getting a chicken to the processing plant?
Breeder flock; Pullet farm; Breeder farm; Hatchery; Broiler Farm
What are three factors that influence the amount of moisture in poultry?
Age, amount of fat, shrinkage, H2O pick-up, amount of drip
What are three benefits associated with the use of phosphates in meats?
Increase water binding capacity (increase yield, decrease purge); inc. tenderness; inc. juiciness; more uniform color; dec. rancidity.
What are the three USDA grades of eggs?
AA, A, B
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the six sizes of eggs?
Jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small, peewee
What are the parts of the cow’s stomach
Omasum, abomasum, rumen, reticulum
What are the names of the connective tissue layers surrounding: the whole muscle, a muscle bundle, muscle fibers and the sarcolemma?
Epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
What are the four stages of hog and pork production?
Sow/farrowing barns; nurseries; finishing farms; packer/processor
What are the four principle ingredients used in curing or pickling of meats?
Sodium chloride, Sugar, Spices, Sodium nitrite or sodium nitrate
What are the four primary stages of cattle and beef production?
Cow/calf operation; stocker operation; feedlot operation; packer/processor
What are the ages of broilers, Cornish hens, and roasters?
Broilers: 7wks old, Cornish: 5 wks old, Roasters: 12 wks old
What are the 4 layers of the albumen of an egg?
Outer thin, thick, inner thin, chalaziferous layer
What are giblets?
Edible viscera of fowl - heart, liver, gizzard
What are four methods of meat tenderization?
Cold room storage (aging or ripening); Mechanical tenderizing (pounding, cutting, ultrasonic treatment, stretching); Protein solubilization with salt treatment; Addition of proteolytic enzymes; Electrical stimulation; Phosphates
What are 3 changes that occur as an egg ages?
Yolk becomes more flattened, vitellin membrane becomes thinner and less rigid, air cell becomes larger, albumen viscosity decreases
Name three ways parasitic tapeworms and roundworms can be destroyed in raw fish?
Cooking, freezing, salting, acidification
Name three functions of nitrite in cured meats.
anti-Clostridium botulinum; stabilize myoglobin (color); flavor; antioxidant
Name the top four grades of beef in descending order.
Prime (highest), choice, select, standard
Name the four lowest grades of beef.
Commercial, utility, cutter, canner
Name 3 breeds of beef cattle.
Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, Brahman, Charalois, Simmental, Limosin, etc.
In general, red meat is a good source of what two minerals?
Iron, Phosphorous, Zinc
Collagen exists as a triple helix structure known by what name?
What is marinated in lime juice to create ceviche?
What is the fleshy process that hangs from the head of a bird, such as a chicken or turkey, called?
Wattle or caruncle
What is thought to have originated in Russia and China from the Mongols placing raw meat under their saddles to tenderize while they rode their horses?
What are the internal organs and entrails of a slaughtered animal called?
Transglutaminase is used to produce imitation crabmeat among other things. What is the microbial source of transglutaminase used in foods?
For what is celery powder used in so-called uncured natural hot dogs?
Source of nitrite