Why is Vitamin A added to skim milk?
Because it is removed with the fat during the skimming
Why are phosphates and polyphosphates added to sausages, cured hams, and cooked poultry?
To increase the water holding capacity and reduce drip loss
Which food product consumes the greatest quantity of food colorant annually?
Which approved sweetner has the greatest sweetness relative to sugar?
Saccharin (300 X sugar)
What water soluble pigments occurring in fruits and vegetables have hues that depend on pH?
What unique sensory property does the protein thaumatin possess?
2000-2500 times sweeter than sucrose
What synthetic colorants must be listed by name on the label ingredient statement when it is added to prepared foods?
FD&C Yellow No. 5 and No. 6
What sweetener did Ira Remsen along with Constantin Fahlberg discover in 1879?
What sugar alcohol is 50% as sweet as sucrose?
What non-cariogenic sugar alcohol has the same relative sweetness as sucrose?
What is the mutated bacterium used in the Ames mutagenicity test?
What is the maximum amount of SO2 permitted in dried fruits?
What is the maximum amount of benzoic acid and benzoates permitted?
GRAS up to 0.1%
What is the major carotenoid pigment in corn?
What is the isomer of Vitamin C often used in the curing of meats?
What is the function of a humectant?
Binds water, lowers water activity
What is the definition of a color additive?
Any dye, pigment, or other substance capable of coloring a food, drug, or cosmetic on any part of the body
What is the common name for the group of oxygenated carotenoids?
What is the cheapest thickener in the US and what is the most expensive?
Cheapest - unmodified corn starch ($0.18/kg), expensive - agar ($26-31/kg)
What is the brand name for the noncaloric sweetener Acesulfame K?
What is the best known flavor enhancer?
What is BST and what does it do?
Bovine Somatotropin - hormone that increases milk production
What is another name for yellow #5?
What food is the primary application for lecithin as an additive?
What does the term “Coal Tar Dye” mean?
Applies to a group of chemical compounds formally known as aniline dyes
What does the acronym EDTA stand for?
Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid
What are the two types of certified food colorants?
Lakes (water and oil soluble) and dyes (water soluble)
What are the main antimycotic agents used in intermediate moisture foods?
Propylene glycol and sorbates
What are “designer foods”?
Food product formulated to contain enhanced levels of beneficial phytochemicals
What additive can be legally used to restore the color of fresh meat?
This artificial sweetener was discovered after Constantin Fahlberg spilled sulfobenzoic acid on his hand and then ate a dinner role.
The preserving activity of vinegar has been ancient times. What is the active preservation component?
The fifth taste response, activated by flavor potentiators like MSG, is called
Rebiana from the leaves of a plant was approved in 2008 by FDA as what?
Products containing aspartame must be labeled to warn what group of consumers?
Name three enzymes and their sources that are used for meat tenderization.
Bromelain from pineapple; Ficin from figs; Papain from papaya
Methyl bromide is a fumigant used for pest control. Why is it desirable to eliminate its usage?
In preservation, parabens are advantageous over benzoic acid because their action is independent of what parameter?
How many calories does aspartame have per gram?
For what is sodium aluminum phosphate (SAP) used in the baking industry?
Define food additive?
Any substance added that directly or indirectly results in any change in the characteristic of the food
Cyclamates were banned in what year?
Chemical additives are generally added in what range? a) 1-5% by weight b) ppm -
b) ppm -
Calcium silicate, calcium stearate, and sodium silicoaluminate are examples of what class of food additive?
A food additive which is not present in or present in low amounts in the final product is called what?
What enrichment ingredients must be added to enriched wheat flour?
Riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, iron, folic acid
What are the benefits and problems associated with nitrates & nitrites in meat?
Benefits - cured meat color, stabilize red meat color, flavor stability, contribute to flavor (antioxidant for lipids, reduced warmed over flavor), inhibition of C. botulinum spore outgrowth with nitrite; Hazards nitrites- nitrosamines (carcinogenic)
What are the 4 categories that food additives?
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS); Prior sanctioned; Regulated (not prior sanctioned, not GRAS, not chemical pesticides, and not color additives); Banned
What are the 4 basic chemical classes of certified dyes?
Azo, xanthine, indigo, triphenyl methane
What are the 2 roles of salt in bread making?
Changes taste; affects its rheological properties by making dough stronger
What are the 2 classes of food colorants?
Certified color additives, uncertified color additives
Rank the following sweeteners in ordor of sweetness: sucrose, fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, HFCS, invert sugar.
Fructose, HFCS invert sugar, xylitol, maltitol, sorbitol, glucose, maltose, lactose
Name two carotenoids which are synthetically produced for use as food additives in the US?
Beta-carotene, beta -apo-8’-carotenal, canthaxanthin
Name three functions of food enzymes used as additives.
Speed up reactions; lower viscosity; improve extractions; enhance separations
Name five colorants exempt from certification
Beta-carotene, carminic acid, caramel color, turmeric, anthocyanins, annatto, paprika, beet powder, squid ink, saffron
Name 5 primary functions of food thickeners
Thickening, emulsion stabilization, suspending, gelation, crystallization, water binding, mouth feel, foam stabilization, flavor fixation, film formation
Name 3 Hydrophobic Surfactants
monoglycerides, acetylated, monoglycerates, ethoxylated, monoglycerides, lactylated (glycerol/ lactopalmitate), propylene glycol monostearate, sorbitan monostearate, sucrose FA di-and tri-esters
Name 3 Hydrophilic Surfactants
monoglycerides, citrate esters; monoglycerides, diacetyl tartarate esters; polyethylene sorbitan esters; polyglycerol FA esters; sucrose FA monoesters lactitol palmitate; sodium steroyl-2-lactylate
Name 3 anti-caking agents:
Starch, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium silicate, calcium stearate, tricalcium phosphate, magnesium silicate, magnesium carbonate, sodium silicoaluminate
Name 2 compounds that can provide a “cooling” sensation in the mouth and explain why this occurs?
Xylitol, mannitol - they have a negative heat of solution
How many synthetic food colorants are permitted in the US today?
Nine (FD&C Blue No.1, Blue No.2, Green No.3, Yellow No.5, Yellow No.6, Red No.3, Red No.40, Orange B, Citrus Red No.2)
EDTA and citric acid are examples of what group of additives used in foods? What is their purpose?
Chelating agents; used to bind metal ions